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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.98.2012.tde-28062012-103725
Document
Author
Full name
Mario Issa
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Avezum Junior, Alvaro (President)
Tarasoutchi, Flavio
Carvalho, Antonio Carlos de Camargo
Izukawa, Nilo Mitsuru
Timerman, Ari
Title in Portuguese
Variáveis prognósticas de evolução hospitalar e no longo prazo de pacientes portadores de dissecção crônica de aorta tipo A de Stanford e aneurisma de aorta ascendente, submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico.
Keywords in Portuguese
Análise multivariada
Aneurisma da aorta
Cirurgia cardíaca
Dissecção
Doenças da aorta
Fatores de risco
Mortalidade
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: Aneurismas e dissecções da aorta constituem as principais doenças da aorta, as quais podem ser submetidas a princípios e técnicas de tratamento cirúrgico em comum. A conduta clínica e cirúrgica continua sendo um desafio nos procedimentos eletivos, bem como em casos de emergência. Informações sobre variáveis prognósticas associadas independentemente com óbito hospitalar e no longo prazo, são escassas, havendo necessidade da identificação destes fatores para a avaliação apropriada sobre o risco cirúrgico desta população. Objetivos: Primário: identificar variáveis prognósticas associadas independentes ao óbito hospitalar em pacientes submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico para correção de doenças da aorta. Secundários: identificar variáveis prognósticas associadas independentes ao óbito tardio e ao desfecho clínico composto (óbito, sangramento, disfunção ventricular e complicações neurológicas). Casuística e Métodos: Delineamento transversal com componente longitudinal, com coleta de dados retrospectiva e prospectiva. Pacientes consecutivos, portadores de aneurisma de aorta ascendente ou dissecção crônica de aorta tipo A de Stanford, foram incluídos por meio de revisão de prontuários. Foram incluídos 257 pacientes, cujos critérios de inclusão envolviam aqueles que foram operados por dissecção crônica de aorta tipo A de Stanford e aneurisma de aorta ascendente. Foram excluídos pacientes com dissecção aguda de aorta, de qualquer tipo, e pacientes que tiveram aneurisma de aorta em outro segmento da aorta que não fosse a aorta ascendente. Os desfechos clínicos avaliados foram óbito, sangramento clinicamente relevante, complicações neurológicas e disfunção ventricular, fase hospitalar e óbito no longo prazo. As variáveis prognósticas avaliadas incluíram: demografia, fatores pré-operatórios, fatores intra-operatórios e complicações pós-operatórias. O seguimento médio foi de 970 dias. O tamanho de amostra foi definido por conveniência aliado a publicações prévias sobre o tópico. Análise univariada foi realizada para selecionar variáveis para serem inseridas no modelo multivariado para identificação das variáveis prognósticas independentemente associados aos desfechos clinicamente relevantes. Resultados: As seguintes variáveis prognósticas apresentaram associação independente como o risco aumentado de óbito na fase hospitalar (RC; IC95%; P valor): etnia negra (6.8; 1.54-30.2; 0,04), doença cerebrovascular (10.5; 1.12-98.7; 0,04), hemopericárdio (35.1; 3.73-330.2; 0,002), cirurgia de Cabrol (9.9; 1.47-66.36; 0,019), cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (4.4; 1.31-15.06; 0,017), revisão de hemostasia (5.72 ;1.29-25.29; 0,021) e circulação extra-corpórea [min] (1.016; 1.007-1.026; 0,001). A presença de dor torácia associou-se independentemente com o risco reduzido de óbito hospitalar (0.27; 0.08-0.94; 0,04). As seguintes variáveis apresentaram associação independente com o risco aumentado do desfecho clínico composto na fase hospitalar: uso de antifibrinolítico (3.2; 1.65-6.27; 0,0006), complicação renal (7.4; 1.52-36.0; 0,013), complicação pulmonar (3.7; 1.5-8.8; 0,004), EuroScore (1.23; 1.08-1,41; 0,003) e tempo de CEC [min] (1.01; 1.00-1.02; 0,027). As seguintes variáveis apresentaram associação independente com o risco aumentado de óbito no longo prazo: doença arterial obstrutiva periférica (7.5; 1.47-37.85; 0,015), acidente vascular cerebral prévio (7.0; 1.46-33.90; 0,015), uso de estatina na alta hospitalar (4.9; 1.17-21.24; 0,029) e sangramento aumentado nas primeiras 24 horas (1.0017; 1.0003-1.0032; 0,021). Conclusão: Etnia negra, doença cerebrovascular, hemopericárcio, cirurgia de Cabrol, revascularização miocárdica cirúrgica associada, revisão de hemostasia e tempo de CEC associaram-se independentemente com risco aumentado de óbito hospitalar. A presença de dor torácica associou-se independentemente com o risco reduzido de óbito hospitalar. Doença arterial obstrutiva periférica prévia, acidente vascular cerebral prévio, uso de estatina na alta hospitalar e sangramento aumentado nas primeiras 24 horas associaram-se independentemente com risco aumentado de óbito no prazo longo. Uso de antifibrinolítico, complicação renal, complicação pulmonar, EuroScore e tempo de CEC associaram-se independentemente com o risco aumentado de desfecho clínico composto hospitalar (óbito, sangramento, disfunção ventricular e complicações neurológicas).
Title in English
Hospital and long-term prognostic variables in patients with ascendant aortic aneurism or Stanford type A aortic chronic dissection who underwent surgical procedure.
Keywords in English
Aortic aneurysm
Cardiac surgery
Diseases of the aorta
Dissection
Mortality
Multivariate Analysis
Risk factors
Abstract in English
Introduction: Both aortic aneurisms and dissections constitute the main aortic diseases, sharing common principles and surgical procedure approaches. Medical and surgical management are seen as a medical challenge concerning elective procedures as well as in emergency cases. Data on prognostic variables independently associated with both hospital and long term death are scarce, leading to a need for appropriate identification of those factors for proper surgical risk evaluation of this population. Objectives: Primary: to identify prognostic variables independently associated with hospital death in patients who underwent surgical procedures for aortic disease correction. Secondary: to identify prognostic variables independently associated with long term death and with composite clinical endpoint (death, bleeding, ventricular dysfunction and neurological complications). Methods: Cross-sectional design plus a longitudinal component, with a retrospective and prospective data collection. Consecutive patients, diagnosed with ascendant aortic aneurism or type A of Stanford aortic chronic dissection were included by means of hospital chart revision and data extraction. A total of 257 patients were recruited and eligibility criteria included those who underwent surgical procedures due to ascendant aortic aneurism or type A of Stanford aortic chronic dissection. Patients with acute aortic dissection and with aortic aneurism in a different segment location other than ascendant aorta were excluded. Clinical endpoints evaluated were death, clinically relevant bleeding, ventricular dysfunction and neurological complications, during the hospital phase and long-term death. Prognostic variables evaluated included: demography, pre-operative factors, intra-operative factors and post-operative complications. Mean follow up was of 970 days. Sample size estimation was defined by a convenience sample along with previous publications. Univariate analysis was conducted to select key variables to be inserted in the multivariate model and to identify the prognostic variables independently associated with clinically relevant endpoints. Results: The following prognostic variables have been identified as independently associated with increased risk of hospital death (OR; 95%IC; P value): black ethnicity (6.8; 1.54-30.2; 0,04), cerebrovascular disease (10.5; 1.12-98.7; 0,04), hemopericardium (35.1; 3.73-330.2; 0,002), Cabrol operation (9.9; 1.47-66.36; 0,019), associated coronary artery bypass graft (4.4; 1.31-15.06; 0,017), reoperation for bleeding (5.72; 1.29-25.29; 0,021) and cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPB) [min] (1.016; 1.007-1.026; 0,001). Presence of chest pain was independently associated with reduced risk of hospital death (0.27; 0.08-0.94; 0,04). The following variables were independently associated with increased risk of composite clinical endpoint during hospital phase: antifibrinolitic use (3.2; 1.65-6.27; 0,0006), renal failure (7.4; 1.52-36.0; 0,013), respiratory failure (3.7; 1.5-8.8; 0,004), EuroScore (1.23; 1.08-1,41; 0,003) and cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPB) [min] (1.01; 1.00-1.02; 0,027). The following variables were independently associated with increased risk of long term death: peripheral obstructive arterial disease (7.5;1.47-37.85;0,015), previous stroke (7.0;1.46-33.90;0,015), at discharge statin use (4.9;1.17-21.24;0,029) and first 24-hour increased bleeding (1.0017;1.0003-1.0032;0,021). Conclusion: Black ethnicity, cerebrovascular disease, hemopericadium, Cabrol operation, associated coronary artery bypass graft, reoperation for bleeding, and cardiopulmonary bypass time were associated with increased risk of hospital death. Presence of chest pain was associated with reduced risk of hospital death. Peripheral obstructive arterial disease, previous stroke, at discharge statin use and first 24-hour increased bleeding were associated with increase risk of long-term death. Use of antifibrinolitic, renal failure, respiratory failure, EuroScore and cardiopulmonary bypass time were associated with increased risk of hospital composite clinical endpoint (death, bleeding, ventricular dysfunction and neurological complications).
 
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Publishing Date
2012-06-29
 
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