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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.91.2020.tde-26052021-130950
Document
Author
Full name
Lucas Mazzero Fernandes
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2020
Supervisor
Committee
Righi, Ciro Abbud (President)
Bernardes, Marcos Silveira
Couto, Hilton Thadeu Zarate do
Pereira, Carlos Rodrigues
Title in Portuguese
Biodiversidade, estoque de carbono e avaliação do agroecossistema itinerante da etnia Guarani-Mbyá na Mata Atlântica
Keywords in Portuguese
Agricultura itinerante
Agrobiodiversidade
Cronossequência
Dinâmica do carbono
Etnia Guarani
Serra do Mar
Serviços ecossistêmicos
Sistema agrícola de derruba e decomposição
Sistema agrícola de derruba e queima
Sistemas agrícolas tradicionais
Abstract in Portuguese
Estima-se que aproximadamente 21% dos territórios ocupados por florestas tropicais estejam cobertos por Sistemas Agrícolas Itinerantes (SAIs). Devido a escassez de estudos que caracterizem os SAIs dos Mybás na Serra do Mar, e que investiguem os serviços ecossistêmicos proporcionados ou prejudicados por estes, realizou-se a diagnose (por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas), o levantamento dos estoques de carbono e da agrobiodiversidade dos sistemas agrícolas da aldeia Rio Branco. Pôde-se constatar que os SAIs são manejados com técnicas que levam em consideração o etnoconhecimento e ao mesmo tempo são um reservatório de grande agrobiodiversidade, principalmente de diversas variedades do Milho Guarani (Axati Etei). Foram identificadas 65 variedades de plantas de uso agrícola, perfazendo 39 espécies. Além disso o SAIs são fonte de renda e de subsistência. Os Guarani produziram nos últimos anos Sistema Agrícolas de Derruba e Mulch (SDMs), cujo manejo com fogo é substituído pela poda. Para verificar os estoques de carbono e a agrobiodiversidade no momento de cultivo entre estes distintos sistemas, a biomassa e o estoque de carbono foram estimados a partir de medidas de DAP (Diâmetro à Altura do Peito) das árvores com mais de 5 cm e de sua altura sendo essas identificadas ao nível de espécie. Verificou-se que os SAIs avaliados estocam mais carbono que sistemas agrícolas tradicionais incipientes do bioma Amazônico e assemelham-se a valores encontradas em fragmentos florestais jovens de Unidades de Preservação Ambiental da Mata Atlântica, com média de 16,25 ton.ha-1 nos SAIs e de 75,7 ton.ha-1 nos SDMs. A regressão linear para as cronossequencias no momento do cultivo mostrou tendências de aumento nos níveis de carbono tanto para SAIs quanto para SDMs. A biodiversidade no momento do cultivo é baixa, o índice de Shannon foi de H'=0,9 nos SAIs e H'= 1,36 nos SDMs. Observou-se uma tendência linear de aumento da riqueza de espécies ao longo do tempo de cultivo nos SDMs porém uma diminuição dessa nos SAIs.
Title in English
Carbon stock, biodiversity and assessment of the Guarani-Mbyá ethnic itinerant agroecosystem in the Atlantic Forest
Keywords in English
Agrobiodiversity
Carbon dynamics
Chronosequence
Ecosystem services
Guarani ethnicity
Serra do Mar
Shifiting cultivation
Slash and burn slash and mulch
Traditional agricultural systems
Abstract in English
It is estimated that approximately 21% of the territories occupied by tropical forests are covered by Shifting Cultivation (SC). Due to the lack of studies that characterize the Mybá's SC in Serra do Mar, and that investigate the ecosystem services provided or impaired by them, the systems diagnosis was made (through semi-structured interviews), subsequently was made the survey of carbon stocks and agrobiodiversity agricultural systems in the Rio Branco village. It was found that SCs are managed with techniques that take into account ethno-knowledge and at the same time are a reservoir of agrobiodiversity, mainly of several varieties of Guarani's Maize (Axati Etei). 65 varieties of plants for agricultural use were identified, making up 39 species. In addition, SCs are a source of income and subsistence. The Guarani have in recent years produced the Agricultural System of Slash and Mulch (SMs), whose management with fire is replaced by pruning. To check the carbon stocks and agrobiodiversity at the time of cultivation between these different systems, the biomass and the carbon stock were estimated from DBH ( Diameter at breast height ) measurements of trees over 5 cm ,their these being identified at the species level. It was found that the SCs evaluated store more carbon than traditional incipient agricultural systems in the Amazon biome and are similar to values found in young forest fragments from Environmental Conservation Units in the Atlantic Forest, with an average of 16.25 ton.ha-1 in SCs and 75.7 ton.ha-1 in the SMs. The linear regression for the chronosequences at the time of cultivation showed trends of increasing carbon levels for both SCs and SMs. Biodiversity at the time of cultivation is low, the Shannon index was H'= 0.9 in SCs and H' = 1.36 in SMs. There was a linear trend towards an increase in species richness over the time of cultivation in the SMs, but a decrease in this in the SCs.
 
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Publishing Date
2021-05-27
 
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