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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.91.2008.tde-25112008-100657
Document
Author
Full name
Anderson Ferreira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Martinelli, Luiz Antonio (President)
Casatti, Lilian
Cyrino, Jose Eurico Possebon
Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Michi de Barros
Kashiwaqui, Elaine Antoniassi Luiz
Title in Portuguese
Relações tróficas e isotópicas entre duas espécies de caracídeos e a cobertura do solo em córregos da bacia do rio Corumbataí, SP
Keywords in Portuguese
Bacias hidrográficas
Cobertura do solo
Dieta animal
Ecossistemas aquáticos
Isótopos estáveis
Peixes de água doce
Abstract in Portuguese
Os ecossistemas aquáticos, além de suas complexas relações internas, são intrinsecamente influenciados pelos ambientes terrestres. Baseando-se na hipótese de que a cobertura do solo influencia as dietas de caracídeos nectônicos de córregos, este trabalho teve o objetivo de investigar, através de conteúdos gástricos e da utilização de isótopos estáveis (13C e 15N), como os padrões alimentares de duas espécies de caracídeos nectônicos (Astyanax paranae e Bryconamericus iheringii) são influenciados pela composição da cobertura de microbacias do rio Corumbataí (SP). Nove córregos desta bacia foram selecionados, através de diferentes proporções de floresta ripária para pastagem, em um trecho de 500m. Estes córregos foram separados em três categorias: Floresta Ripária (> que 90% de floresta ripária), Vegetação Mista (entre 30 e 60%) e Pastagem (< 29% de floresta ripária). As coletas foram realizadas em dois períodos distintos: seco e chuvoso. As espécies apresentaram dietas distintas entre si, mas não houve diferença entre as dietas nos períodos seco e chuvoso. Houve diferença espacial significativa entre as dietas nas diferentes categorias de córregos. A dieta de A. paranae foi baseada em recursos alóctones nos córregos de Floresta Ripária e Vegetação Mista e em recursos autóctones nos córregos de Pastagem. A dieta de B. iheringii foi constituída por recursos autóctones nos córregos de Floresta Ripária e por recursos mistos nos córregos de Vegetação Mista e Pastagem. As dietas foram correlacionadas com variáveis abióticas, principalmente estrutura dos canais e substrato e com as todas as escalas espaciais estudadas. As análises isotópicas indicaram fortes correlações dos sinais das fontes alimentares e dos caracídeos com as porcentagens de florestas nas escalas correspondentes às zonas ripárias (Trecho, Montante e Rede Hidrográfica). Apesar das maiores contribuições de 13C de plantas C4 para os caracídeos nos córregos com Vegetação Mista e Pastagem, os córregos com Floresta Ripária apresentaram valores expressivos de sinais isotópicos mais pesados, indicando também que a cobertura do solo em toda área da microbacia influencia as cadeias alimentares dos córregos. Os valores de 15N encontrados nos caracídeos e nas fontes alimentares nos córregos de Pastagem foram mais enriquecidos, demonstrando a influência das alterações da cobertura do solo das vertentes das microbacias. A perda de florestas ripárias ou mesmo a fragmentação destas áreas desestruturam as cadeias alimentares nos córregos. Desta forma, a recuperação e preservação das florestas ripárias e manejo do solo das microbacias são fundamentais para a manutenção da integridade e da qualidade ambiental desses ecossistemas.
Title in English
Trophic and isotopic relationships between two species of Characidae and land cover in streams from the Corumbataí River basin, Brazil
Keywords in English
Characidae
Diet
Land cover
Riparian zone
Stable isotope
Abstract in English
Aquatic ecosystems not only comprise complex internal interactions but are inherently influenced by terrestrial environments. Based on the postulation that watershed soil cover influences diets of stream fish, this work aimed at investigating feeding patterns of two species of nektonic Characidae (Astyanax paranae and Bryconamericus iheringii) under influence of soil cover types in nine stream watersheds, during dry and wet seasons. Dietary patterns and stream food web chain links were assessed through analysis of fish gastric contents and stable isotopes signals (13C and 15N). Nine streams in Corumbataí river basin (State of São Paulo) were chosen taking into account their proportions of riparian forest to pastures, measured along 500 m stretch, and assigned into three categories: Riparian Forest (>90% riparian forest), Mixed Vegetation (30 to 60%) and Pasture (< 29% riparian forest). For the analysis of interactions soil cover and stream fish diets, four spatial watershed portions were defined: 30 m wide riparian corridor along the 500 m sampling reach SR; SR plus a 500 m upstream reach UR; all watershed Riparian Corridor RW, and all watershed area -AW. Diets of both species differed, but no difference was observed between dry and wet seasons. For each species and season, there were significant differences between fish diet among stream categories. Diet of A. paranae was based on allochthonous sources in streams of Riparian Forest and Mixed Vegetation and autochthonous sources in Pasture streams. Diet of B. iheringii consisted of autochthonous sources in streams of Riparian Forest and mixed sources (sediment/debris) in Mixed Vegetation and Pasture streams. Diets were correlated to abiotic variables related to channel structure and streambed substrate, and the percent of forest in all studied spatial scales. The isotopic analysis indicated strong correlations of the signals of food sources and fish with the percentages of forests in areas corresponding to the riparian scales (SR, UR and RW). Despite the major contributions of 13C of C4 plants for diets of both species in Mixed Vegetation and Pasture streams, Riparian Forest streams showed heavier and significant isotopic signals, indicating that the soil cover throughout the watershed area (AW) influenced streams food webs. The values of 15N found in both species and the food sources in Pasture streams were more enriched, demonstrating the influence of watershed soil cover proportions (either forest or pasture cover). Riparian forests loss and fragmentation impacts stream food web in different ways. Thus, the recovery and preservation of riparian forests and proper soil management throughout any given watershed are essential for maintaining the integrity and the environmental quality of these lotic ecosystems.
 
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Anderson_Ferreira.pdf (5.97 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2008-12-03
 
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