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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.90.2013.tde-06092013-000029
Document
Author
Full name
Paulo Roberto Cunha
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2013
Supervisor
Committee
Mello Théry, Neli Aparecida de (President)
Beduschi Filho, Luiz Carlos
Rodrigues, Marta Maria Assumpção
Title in Portuguese
O Código Florestal e os processos de formulação do mecanismo de compensação de reserva legal (1996-2012): ambiente político e política ambiental
Keywords in Portuguese
agronegócio
análise de política pública
bancada ruralista
Código Florestal Brasileiro
Compensação de reserva legal
processos políticos
Abstract in Portuguese
Esta dissertação tem como objetivo analisar os processos político-legislativos que culminaram na criação e nas modificações do mecanismo de compensação de reserva legal, previsto no revogado Código Florestal Brasileiro (Lei Federal nº 4.771/1965) e na lei que o substituiu (Lei Federal nº 12.651/2012). A questão central que orienta esta pesquisa é a seguinte: por que, desde o seu surgimento, a compensação de reserva legal sofreu constantes modificações? As hipóteses para a pergunta formulada consideram que, no complexo jogo político de alteração do Código Florestal, prevaleceram as proposições de dois agrupamentos de atores: o agronegócio (e de outros interesses associados, como mineradoras e hidrelétricas) e a bancada ruralista do Congresso Nacional. Assim, focalizando na compensação de reserva legal, estabeleceu-se um recorte temporal de 1996 a 2012, onde se analisou os processos políticos das seguintes etapas: (i) a formação da agenda governamental em 1996, que culminou na alteração do Código Florestal por medida provisória; (ii) a criação da compensação em 1998; (iii) a modificação desse instrumento no anteprojeto de lei do Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente (CONAMA) (2000); e (iv) a alteração proposta pelo projeto de lei aprovado na Comissão Especial Temporária do Código Florestal (2010), instituída na Câmara dos Deputados, e sua aprovação pelo plenário daquela Casa (2011), cujo texto foi incorporado na nova lei florestal (2012). No exame dessas quatro fases, considerou-se que uma política pública é o resultado da multiplicidade de elementos e sua complexa interação. Assim, conforme as especificidades de cada etapa, o desenvolvimento do trabalho demandou a mobilização de componentes teóricos dos seguintes referenciais da ciência política: o neo institucionalismo, a hegemonia do Poder Executivo sobre o Legislativo, a articulação dos grupos de interesses econômicos, a teoria dos Múltiplos Fluxos (John W. Kingdon), o pluralismo (Robert A. Dahl) e a tipologia de Theodore Lowi. Assim, o trabalho identifica os atores chaves, especialmente aqueles relacionados ao agronegócio e à bancada ruralista, seus aspectos essenciais, suas interações, a correlação de forças, os embates, as tentativas de influenciar o jogo político em relevo. Na análise da Comissão Especial do Código Florestal (2010), o trabalho identifica os parlamentares ruralistas, os donos de terras, aqueles cujas campanhas eleitorais receberam financiamento do agronegócio/interesses associados, bem como outras características que permitam entender o peso daquela bancada suprapartidária e daquele setor econômico no abrandamento das regras alusivas à compensação de reserva legal. O trabalho colheu evidencias que corroboram as hipóteses levantadas, pois a bancada ruralista e o agronegócio/interessados associados atuaram em várias frentes, mobilizaram recursos políticos e, aproveitando-se do desenho institucional, contribuíram decisivamente para a criação e modificação da compensação de reserva legal ao longo dos anos. O estudo mostra ainda que outros fatores foram importantes nesse contexto, como a posição do governo e a formação das coalizões partidárias, especialmente no Congresso Nacional.
Title in English
The Forest Act and the formulating processes of the mechanism Compensation of Legal Forest Reserve (1996-2012): political environment and environmental policy.
Keywords in English
agribusiness
Brazilian Forest Act
Compensation of legal forest reserve
political processes
public policy analysis
rural caucus.
Abstract in English
The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the political and legislative processes that culminated in the creation and modification of the compensation mechanism of legal forest reserve, provided for in the repealed Brazilian Forest Act (Federal Act No. 4.771/1965) and in the law that replaced it (Federal Act No. 12.651/2012). The central matter guiding this research is the following: why, since its appearance, the compensation of legal forest reserves has been suffering constant changes? The hypothesis regarding the question posed considers that in the complex political game of the Forest Act alteration, there have prevailed the propositions of two groups of actors: agribusiness (and other associated interests such as mining and hydropower companies) and the Brazilian Congressional Rural caucus members performance congressmen and senators. Thus, focusing on the compensation of the legal forest reserve, a time frame from 1996 until 2012 was established, where the political processes of the following stages were analyzed: (i) the formation of the government agenda in 1996, which culminated in the amendment of the Forest Act by provisional decree; (ii) the creation of compensation in 1998; (iii) modification of this instrument in the draft bill of the National Council of Environment (CONAMA) (2000); and (iv) the amendment proposed by the bill of law approved by the Temporary Special Commission of the Forest Act (2010), introduced in the House of Representatives, and its approval by the plenary of that House (2011), whose text was incorporated in the new forest code (2012). Examining these four stages, it was considered that a public policy is the result of multiple factors and their complex interaction. Thus, according to the specificities of each stage, the development work required the mobilization of theoretical components of the following references of political science: the new institutionalism, the hegemony of the Executive Branch over the Legislative Branch, the articulation of the economic interest group, the Multiple Stream Model (John W. Kingdon), pluralism (Robert A. Dahl) and Theodore Lowis typology. Thus, the work identifies the key actors, especially those related to agribusiness and to the rural caucus, their essential aspects, their interactions, the correlation of forces, the conflicts, and attempts to influence the political game at issue. In the analysis of the Special Committee of the Forest Act (2010), the work identifies the rural parliaments, landowners, those whose electoral campaigns received funding from associated agribusiness/interests, as well as other characteristics that allow the understanding of the weight of that bench and that economic sector in loosening the rules regarding the compensation of legal forest reserve. The work gathered evidences that corroborated the hypotheses because the caucus and agribusiness/interested members acted on several fronts, mobilized political resources, taking advantage of the institutional design, contributed decisively for the creation and modification of the legal forest reserve compensation along the years. The study further demonstrates that other factors were important in this context, as the government position and formation of party coalitions, especially in the National Congress.
 
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Publishing Date
2013-11-06
 
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