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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.9.2016.tde-05092006-232733
Document
Author
Full name
Katia Solange Cardoso Rodrigues dos Santos
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2005
Supervisor
Committee
Ferreira, Elizabeth Igne (President)
Bruns, Roy Edward
Cotrim, Paulo Cesar
Gil, Maria Helena Mendes
Higa, Olga Zazuco
Title in Portuguese
Latenciação de hidroximetilnitrofural com derivados de quitosana, potencialmente ativos em leishmaniose e doença de Chagas
Keywords in Portuguese
Doença de Chagas (Quimioterapia)
Doenças parasitárias (Quimioterapia)
Hidroximetilnitrofural
Leishmaniose
Planejamento de fármacos
Polímeros sintéticos (Quimioterapia)
Pró-Fármaco
Quitosana
Síntese
Abstract in Portuguese
Leishmaniose e doença de Chagas são parasitoses endêmicas causadas, respectivamente, pelos protozoários Leishmania spp. e Trypanosoma cruzi. Ante à escassez de quimioterápicos, à elevada toxicidade dos fármacos disponíveis e à baixa eficácia destes no combate às formas intracelulares, replicantes, dos parasitos há necessidade de buscar novas alternativas quimioterápicas. A atividade tripanomicida do hidroximetilnitrofural, base de Mannich do nitrofural, já era conhecida. O presente trabalho mostra que este derivado também apresenta atividade leishmanicida, quando ensaiado em formas promastigotas de L. amazonensis, L. chagasi e L. baziliensis. Com o objetivo de obter pró-fármacos potencialmente ativos em doença de Chagas e leishmanioses visceral e mucocutânea, planejaram-se e foram sintetizados derivados hidrossolúveis de hidroximetilnitrofural e quitosana, polissacarídeo que apresenta, também, atividade imunomoduladora. Para a aplicação tópica em leishmaniose cutânea sintetizaram-se membranas de quitosana ligada ao hidroximetilnitrofural. Membranas de quitosana copolimerizadas com enxertos de ácido acrílico e metacrilato de hidroxietila foram sintetizadas e avaliadas quanto à biocompatibilidade - trombogenicidade, citotoxicidade e potencial hemolítico. Aquelas com maior teor em metacrilato de hidroxietila não se mostraram citotóxicas, tampouco hemolíticas; aquelas com maior proporção em ácido acrílico, por sua vez, apresentaram excelentes características de intumescimento, mas certo grau de citotoxicidade e hemólise, possivelmente devido à presença de monômeros que não reagiram no material. A ligação do hidroximetilnitrofural à quitosana, por meio de espaçante succínico, produziu prófármaco com propriedades filmogênicas para a aplicação tópica. Os derivados obtidos pró-fármacos e transportadores (quitosanas modificadas) - foram analisados no infravermelho, por ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN 1H e RMN 13C) e por análise térmica - OMTA, TG, OSC. Ensaios de atividade tripanomicida e leishmanicida dos pró-fármacos poliméricos e membranas serão posteriormente efetuados.
Title in English
Latentiation of hidroximetilnitrofural derivative chitosan, potentially active in leishmaniasis and Chagas disease
Keywords in English
Chagas disease (Chemotherapy)
Chitosan
Drugs planning
hydroxymethylnitrofurazone
Leishmaniasis
Parasitic diseases (Chemotherapy)
Prodrugs
Synthesis
Synthetic polymers (Chemotherapy)
Abstract in English
Leishmaniasis and Chagas' disease are endemic parasitosis provoked by the protozoa Leishmania spp and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively. Due to the scarce chemotherapy, to the high toxicity of the available drugs and to their low effectiveness, mainly in the treatment of intracellular replicant forms of those parasites, the search for new chemotherapeutic alternatives is extremely important. Hydroxymethylnitrofurazone, a nitrofurazone Mannich basis, has proven to be active against trypanomicide before and its activity in cultures of L. amazonensis, L. chagasi and L. braziliensis promastigotes was determined in this work. With the purpose of obtaining prodrugs potentially active in Chagas' disease and visceral and mucocutaneous leishmaniases, hydrosoluble hydroxymethylnitrofurazone prodrugs have been designed and synthesized using chitosan, a polysaccharide showing immunomudulatory activity, as the carrier. Membranes from chitosan linked with hydroxymethylnitrofurazone have been synthesized for topical administration in cutaneous leishmaniasis. Membranes were obtained by graft copolymerization of hydroxyethy/methacrylate and acrylic acid onto chitosan and their biocompatibility - trombogenicity, citotoxicity and hemolysis potential - was evaluated. Those membranes with higher content of hydroxyethylmethacrylate showed to be neither cytotoxic nor hemolytic; those with higher content of acrylic acid showed good swelling properties, although a certain level of cytotoxicity and haemolysis has been detected, due to the presence of non-reacted monomers. The linkage of hydroxymethylnitrofurazone to chitosan by a succinyl spacer group led to a prodrug with filmogenic properties for topic administration. The derivatives obtained - prodrugs and carriers (modified chitosans) - were analyzed by infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 13C NMR) and by thermal analysis - DMTA, TG and DSC. Tests of trypanomicide and leishmanicide activity with polymer prodrugs and membranes will be further developed.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-11-01
 
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