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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.9.2012.tde-15082012-161332
Document
Author
Full name
Fanny Palace Berl
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Tavares, Leoberto Costa (President)
Lindoso, José Angelo Lauletta
Parise Filho, Roberto
Title in Portuguese
Planejamento, síntese e avaliação da atividade anti-T. cruzi de derivados furfurilidênicos com estruturas azometínica e oxadiazolínica 
Keywords in Portuguese
Análise exploratória
Modelagem molecular
Nitro-furanos
Trypanosoma cruzi
Abstract in Portuguese
A busca de alternativas terapêuticas para o tratamento da doença de Chagas é de grande importância, visto que atualmente existem apenas dois fármacos disponíveis, o benznidazol e o nifurtimox. Ambos apresentam efeitos adversos consideráveis, sendo utilizado, no Brasil, apenas o benznidazol. Compostos nitro-heterocíclicos com atividade frente ao Trypanosoma cruzi, agente causal da doença de Chagas, tem apresentado resultados promissores. Assim, este trabalho abrange o planejamento, síntese, identificação, avaliação da atividade anti-T. cruzi de 5-nitro furfurilidênicos (IC50 T. cruzi) e a citotoxicidade destes compostos frente a macrófagos de linhagem J774 (IC50 J774). A nifuroxazida, composto-protótipo, inspirou as modificações moleculares originando duas séries de compostos furfurilidênicos, uma com estrutura azometínica, série I, e outra com estrutura oxadiazolínica, série II. A escolha de substituintes foi baseada no diagrama de Craig, sendo selecionados dez substituintes para cada série. Foi avaliada a atividade dos vinte compostos planejados frente ao T. cruzi, dos quais os mais ativos foram: 4-butil-[N'- (5-nitrofuran-2-il)metileno]benzidrazida (4g - IC50 T. cruzi = 1,05 µM, DP = 0,07) e 3-Acetil-5-(4-butilfenil)-2-(5-nitrofuran-2-il)-2,3-di-idro-1,3,4-oxadiazol (5g - IC50 T. cruzi = 8,27 µM, DP = 0,42). Comparados com os fármacos de referência, benznidazol (IC50 T. cruzi = 22,69 µM, DP = 1,96) e nifurtimox (IC50 T. cruzi = 3,78 µM, DP = 0,10), o composto 4g demonstrou atividade anti-T. cruzi superior a ambos. Todos os compostos apresentaram atividade maior do que a nifuroxazida (IC50 T. cruzi = 120,46 µM, DP = 4,06). Para os ensaios de citotoxicidade, obteve-se para o composto mais ativo frente ao T. cruzi, 4g, IC50 J774 = 28,05 µM, DP = 1,05, e para o composto 5g, obteve-se IC50 J774 = > 400 µM, o que representa que a concentração máxima avaliada deste composto não afetou as células. Ambos apresentaram boa seletividade ao efetuar a relação entre o IC50 J774 e o IC50 T. cruzi. Adicionalmente, foram realizados cálculos de propriedades físico-químicas das estruturas tridimensionais dos compostos, seguido pela análise exploratória de dados por análise de agrupamentos hierárquicos (hierarchical clusters analysis - HCA) e análise de componentes principais (principal component analysis, PCA), possibilitando a identificação das propriedades que mais influenciam na atividade anti-T. cruzi nas séries dos compostos estudados. Os resultados indicaram uma forte influência das propriedades ClogP e momento dipolo, evidenciando a necessidade de um equilíbrio lipofílico/hidrofílico no planejamento de novas moléculas com ação anti-T. cruzi.
Title in English
Design, synthesis, identification and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity evaluation of furfurylidene azomethine and oxadiazole derivatives
Keywords in English
Exploratory analysis
Molecular modeling
Nitro-furfurilidene
Trypanosoma cruzi
Abstract in English
The search for alternative therapies for the treatment of Chagas disease presents great importance, since there are only two currently available drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole. Both have considerable adverse effects and, in Brazil, is used only benznidazole. Nitro-heterocyclic compounds with activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has shown promising results. Thus, this work includes the design, synthesis, identification, evaluation of anti-T. cruzi activity of 5-nitro-2- furfuriliden (IC50 T. cruzi) and cytotoxicity of these compounds against J774 macrophages cell line (IC50 J774). The nifuroxazide, as a lead compound, inspired the molecular modification leading to two series of furfuriliden compounds, a azometinic structure, series I, and other with oxadiazolinic structure, series II. The choice of substituents was based on the Craig's diagram, and ten substituents were selected for each series. We evaluated the activity of twenty compounds designed against T. cruzi, and the most active compounds were: 4-butyl-[N'-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl) methylene] benzidrazide (4g - IC50 T. cruzi = 1.05 µM, SD = 0.07) and 3-acetyl-5-(4-butylphenyl)-2 -(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)- 2,3-dihydro, 1,3,4-oxadiazole (5g - IC50 T. cruzi = 8.27 µM, SD = 0.42). Compared to the reference drugs, benznidazole (IC50 T. cruzi = 22.69 µM, SD = 1.96) and nifurtimox (IC50 T. cruzi = 3.78 µM, SD = 0.10), the compound 4g demonstrated anti-T. cruzi activity superior to both drugs. All compounds showed better activity than nifuroxazide (IC50 T. cruzi = 120.46 µM, SD = 4.06). For cytotoxicity assays, was found for the most active compound against T. cruzi, 4g, IC50 J774 = 28.05 µM, SD = 1.05, and for compound 5g was obtained IC50 J774 = >400 µM, that represents the maximum concentration of the compound evaluated which did not affect the cells. Both showed good selectivity in the calculation of the ratio between the IC50 T. cruzi and IC50 J774. Additionally, we performed calculations of the physicochemical properties of three-dimensional structures of the compounds, followed by exploratory data analysis including hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), which contributed to the identification of properties that influence the activity anti-T. cruzi in the series of compounds studied. The findings indicated a significant influence of ClogP and dipole moment properties, pointing out the need of a lipophilic/hydrophilic balance in the designing of novel anti-T. cruzi molecules.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-09-04
 
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