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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.85.2011.tde-15092011-135033
Document
Author
Full name
Davi Zacarias de Souza
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Vasconcellos, Perola de Castro (President)
Landulfo, Eduardo
Masini, Jorge Cesar
Mazzilli, Bárbara Paci
Rocha, Gisele Olímpio da
Title in Portuguese
Levoglucosano e íons solúveis em água no material particulado atmosférico MP10 e MP2,5. caracterização  de sítios Sul-Americanos
Keywords in Portuguese
cidades sul-americanas
íons solúveis
levoglucosano
material particulado
poluição atmosférica
Abstract in Portuguese
A composição química do material particulado fino (MP2,5) e MP10 foi determinado em três sítios representativos do estado de São Paulo: Cidade Universitária (SPA), Piracicaba (PRB) e São Luis do Paraitinga (MAT); e em duas outras cidades sul-americanas, Bogotá (BOG) e Buenos Aires (BAI). As coletas ocorreram nos anos de 2007, 2008 e 2009. Para caracterizar os sítios foram determinados íons inorgânicos, orgânicos e levoglucosano no MP coletado em filtros de fibra de quartzo. O material carbonáceo, sulfato, nitrato e amônio foram as espécies determinadas mais abundantes na massa do MP2,5 e MP10, sobretudo nas amostras dos sítios do estado de São Paulo. A contribuição destes componentes está associada à formação secundária das partículas atmosféricas nos centros urbanos. Entretanto, o cátion predominante das amostras nos sítios BOG e BAI foi o cálcio. Esta espécie no MP atmosférico, juntamente com o Mg2+, são atribuídos à ressuspensão de solo. Por meio dos estudos das trajetórias de massas de ar foi observada a influência de outras fontes sobre o material particulado local. A entrada de partículas provenientes de queima de madeira e biomassa em regiões urbanas foi associada à presença do levoglucosano, correlacionado com K+ e outros marcadores ambientais. O uso de ferramentas estatísticas, como as razões diagnósticas, as matrizes de correlações e análise de componente principal (ACP), contribuíram para a caracterização dos sítios estudados, distinguindo estatisticamente as emissões veiculares, das atividades agrícolas, industriais e queima da biomassa, entre outras.
Title in English
Levoglucosan and water-soluble ions in atmospheric particulate matter PM10 e PM2,5. Characterization of south american sites
Keywords in English
atmospheric pollution
levoglucosan
particulate matter
south american sites
water-soluble ions
Abstract in English
The chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and PM10 was determined in three sites representative of the São Paulo State: University City (SPA), Piracicaba (PRB) and São Luis of the Paraitinga (MAT); and in two other South American cities, Bogotá (BOG) and Buenos Aires (BAI). The samples were collected in 2007, 2008 and 2009. In order to characterize the chemical composition of PM collected on quartz fiber filters, water-soluble ions and levoglucosan were determined. Carbonaceous material, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were the most abundant species in the PM2.5 and PM10 samples, especially those from the São Paulo sites. The contribution of these components is associated with secondary formation of atmospheric particles in urban centers. However, calcium was the predominant cation of samples from BOG and BAI sites. PM atmospheric presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ is attributed to soil dust. Through the studies air mass trajectories was observed the influence of other sources on the local particulate matter. The input of particles from burning wood and biomass in urban areas was associated with the presence of levoglucosan with K+ and other environmental tracers. The use of statistical tools such as diagnostic reasons, correlation matrices and principal component analysis (PCA), contributed to the characterization of sites studied. Therefore it was possible to distinguish statistically vehicle, agricultural activities, industrial and biomass burning emissions, among others.
 
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Publishing Date
2011-10-17
 
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