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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2006.tde-24082007-140504
Document
Author
Full name
José de Paula Ramos Junior
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Lopez, Therezinha Apparecida Porto Ancona (President)
Lajolo, Marisa Philbert
Manfio, Diléa Zanotto
Moraes, Antonio Dimas de
Moraes, Marcos Antonio de
Title in Portuguese
A fortuna crítica de Macunaíma: primeira onda (1928-1936)
Keywords in Portuguese
Crítica literária
Literatura brasileira
Macunaíma
Mário de Andrade
Modernismo
Abstract in Portuguese
Esta tese propõe uma leitura da recepção crítica de Macunaíma no período circunscrito entre 1928 e 1936, correspondente à vigência da edição príncipe da rapsódia de Mário de Andrade. A análise de vinte e quatro pronunciamentos, recuperados na quase totalidade em fontes primárias, ressalta a contribuição de cada um e demonstra como os juízos estéticos expedidos se associam a perspectivas ideológicas nacionalistas em vigor no momento em que o modernismo estava no auge e buscava respostas estéticas e culturais - mas com implicações sociais ou mesmo políticas - para problemas decorrentes do processo histórico de modernização do Brasil. O confronto de opiniões da crítica com pronunciamentos de Mário de Andrade, contidos na correspondência privada ou textos publicados (em que há menção a Macunaíma, bem como a temas discutidos ou juízos expedidos nas recepções), constitui um diálogo de múltiplas vozes, cuja análise revela a coincidência das posturas críticas adversas com as principais matrizes ideológicas nacionalistas conservadoras (Alceu Amoroso Lima, Graça Aranha e Gilberto Freyre), enquanto as posturas favoráveis se aproximam do modernismo de resistência implícito na rapsódia. O exame dos pronunciamentos de Mário esclarece, também, a relação entre Macunaíma e o projeto modernista do próprio autor: a rapsódia é concebida, sobretudo, como obra de arte, fato estético de linguagem e, não obstante, realização máxima de "literatura de circunstância", associada às noções andradianas de "primitivismo" e de "nacionalismo crítico" (cosmopolita).
Title in English
The critical reception of Macunaíma within 1928 and 1936
Keywords in English
Brazilian literature
Literary criticism
Macunaíma
Mário de Andrade
Modernism
Abstract in English
The aim of this thesis is to analyse the critical reception of Macunaíma within 1928 and 1936 which corresponds to the period when only the first edition of Mário de Andrade's work of art was available. The analysis of twenty-four statements, almost all of them taken from primary sources, highlights the contribution given by each text and demonstrates how the esthetical judgement issued at that time are related to national ideological perspectives which were held when Modernism was at its height and there was the search for esthetical and cultural answers but with social and even political implications of problems derived from the historical process of modernization in Brazil. The comparison between critical opinions and Mário de Andrade's statements found in private correspondence or in published texts in which Mário de Andrade refers to Macunaíma as well as to discussed themes or judgements concerning his book, constitutes a multiple voiced dialogue whose analysis reveals that there was a coincidence between the negative critical view of his work and the main national conservative paradigmatic ideologies (represented by Alceu de Amoroso Lima, Graça Aranha and Gilberto Freyre). Whereas the favourable views of his work are close to the opposition set by the revolutionary wing of Modernism and this was made implicit in Macunaíma. The examination of Mário's statements also clarifies the relation between Macunaíma and the author's own project: his work is conceived, above all, as being a work of art, an esthetical issue of language and as a supreme performance of "social active literature" associated to the Andradian notions of "primitivism" and cosmopolitan "critical nationalism".
 
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Publishing Date
2007-10-03
 
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