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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2017.tde-08022017-132707
Document
Author
Full name
Adriana Marcolini
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Dias, Mauricio Santana (President)
Amoroso, Maria Betânia
Biondi, Luigi
Casini, Maria Cecilia
Peres, Marcos Roberto Flamínio
Title in Portuguese
Sull'Oceano: uma travessia de emigrantes italianos
Keywords in Portuguese
Argentina
De Amicis
Emigração
Emigrantes
Itália
Abstract in Portuguese
Considerado o primeiro romance da emigração italiana, Sull'Oceano, de Edmondo De Amicis (1846-1908), foi lançado em 1889 pelo editor Treves, de Milão, e obteve grande sucesso editorial na Itália. Toda a narrativa se passa a bordo do navio em que o autor viajou de Gênova, na Itália, a Buenos Aires, na Argentina, em 1884. A embarcação levava na terceira classe 1.600 emigrantes italianos com destino à Argentina (uma minoria tinha como meta o Uruguai). Também transportava 50 passageiros na primeira classe e 20 na segunda além de cerca de 200 tripulantes. O livro é um microcosmo da sociedade italiana da época. A Itália era então um país recém-nascido, cuja unificação só havia se concretizado em 1861, após um longo processo conhecido como Risorgimento. A unificação da Itália, no entanto, foi acompanhada de uma contradição: o êxodo massivo de cidadãos que ficaram marginalizados. A emigração ficou marcada como uma cicatriz resultante deste penoso parto que deu nascimento ao país. SullOceano mostra como essa cicatriz se manifestava a bordo daquele navio de emigrantes: alguns sentiam desprezo pela pátria, outros desconfiança, raiva ou rancor por serem praticamente obrigados a abandonar a terra natal. Apesar de que a Itália tivesse se tornado um país em 1861, o mosaico de dialetos a bordo revela que, em 1884, a nação italiana ainda não existia. Os emigrantes, vindos de diferentes regiões, não se entendiam entre si. De Amicis utiliza os dialetos com maestria e confere sabor ao texto. O romance mostrou à elite italiana as péssimas condições da viagem dos emigrantes e emitiu um alerta para as autoridades, que em 1901 estabeleceram uma série de normas a serem obedecidas pelos navios. Apesar da importância de SullOceano, e do sucesso editorial alcançado à época do lançamento, o livro é hoje praticamente desconhecido na Itália. Esta tese apresenta De Amicis e sua vasta obra, analisa SullOceano e aponta as razões para explicar o esquecimento do romance junto ao público leitor italiano. O trabalho também tece um panorama sobre a literatura da emigração italiana entre as décadas de 1880 e 1930.
Title in English
Sull'Oceano: a Voyage of Italian emigrants
Keywords in English
Argentina
De Amicis
Emigrants
Emigration
Italy
Abstract in English
Considered to be the first novel about Italian emigration, Sull'Oceano, by Edmondo De Amicis (1846-1908) was first launched in 1889 by Treves publishing house, from Milan, and achieved a great success in Italy. The entire plot is developed aboard the ship in which the author travelled from Genoa, in Italy, to Buenos Aires, in Argentina, in 1884. The vessel transported 1,600 Italian emigrants in the third-class headed to Argentina (a minority was headed to Uruguay). In addition, it carried 50 passengers in the first-class and 20 in the second-class. Moreover, the vessel had a 200-member crew. The book is a micro cosmos of the Italian society in that period. Italy was then a new-born country. Its unification was achieved in 1861 after a long process known as Risorgimento. However, Italys unification was followed by a contradiction: the massive exodus of citizens that were marginalized by it. A scar appeared in Italys painful delivery: emigration. SullOceano reveals how this scar was expressed aboard that ship full of emigrants: some felt disdain for the native land while other felt suspicion, anger or grudge towards it. Emigrants were practically obliged to leave their native land. Despite the fact that Italy had become a country in 1861, the mosaic of dialects spoken aboard reveals that in 1884 the Italian nation did not exist yet. Emigrants aboard came from different Italian regions and could not understand each other. De Amicis uses dialects wisely and offers flavored dialogues. The novel denounced to the Italian elite the extremely bad conditions of emigrant ship journeys and sent out an alert to the authorities. As a result, a series of rules to be followed by vessel companies were set by Italian government in 1901. Despite the significance of SullOceano and the editorial success it achieved when launched, in 1889, today the book is almost unknown in Italy. Besides presenting De Amicis and his work, this thesis analyses SullOceano and discusses the reasons for its forgetfulness in nowadays Italy. In addition, it presents an overview of Italian literature produced between 1880 and 1930 inspired on the massive emigration of its citizens.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-02-08
 
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