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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.8.2010.tde-27042010-121239
Document
Author
Full name
Elton Luiz Aliandro Furlanetto
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Soares, Marcos Cesar de Paula (President)
Cevasco, Maria Elisa Burgos Pereira da Silva
Suppia, Alfredo Luiz Paes de Oliveira
Title in Portuguese
Reificação e utopia na ficção científica norte-americana da Guerra Fria
Keywords in Portuguese
Crítica materialista
Ficção científica
Guerra Fria
Reificação
Utopia
Abstract in Portuguese
Esta dissertação busca analisar três romances e um conto produzidos nos Estados Unidos nos anos 1950, pertencentes ao gênero de ficção científica. Trata-se de Um Cântico para Leibowitz, de Walter Miller Jr, escrito entre 1955 e 1957; Saia do meu céu!, de James Blish, escrito entre 1956 e 1957; Os mercadores do espaço, de Frederik Pohl e C.M. Kornbluth, escrito em 1953; e "Invasores do Espaço Interior", de Howard Koch, publicado em 1959. O objetivo do trabalho é estudar e entender de que maneira as forças sociais que formavam a "estrutura de sentimento" daquela época se materializaram nas obras. Para isso, procuramos os momentos de utopia presentes nos romances e no conto, indicando como tais momentos são neutralizados ou deslocados por aspectos ideológicos, que barram a imaginação e as possibilidades criativas dos autores. Seguindo a tradição crítica materialista histórica, vemos que as obras de arte, mesmo aquelas que se ligam mais fortemente à chamada Indústria Cultural, são atos sociais simbólicos, os quais intentam responder aos questionamentos mais pungentes de sua época. A análise é realizada em camadas, iniciando-se no nível textual, passando para um estudo de estruturas narrativas: o foco narrativo, a representação do espaço e do tempo. Depois, selecionamos um material social fundamental para o gênero, dentre os que as obras dão voz: a ciência. Analisamos como esse material é revelado em suas potencialidades utópicas ou suas restrições históricas. O que todos os exames demonstram é que existe uma tentativa de deslocar ou neutralizar a vontade de mudanças presente nas obras. Nossa hipótese era que o crescente fechamento político e a repressão nos primeiros anos da década de 1950 tinham sido as responsáveis por essa dificuldade de pensar alternativas positivas e viáveis para o presente e o futuro dos homens. Isso fica evidenciado ao observarmos o episódio final de cada um dos objetos sob estudo. Entender como os autores responderam no passado a certa pressão social parece ser relevante hoje, como forma de evitarmos, num novo momento de repressão e crise, respostas repetidas e desviadas das preocupações reais atuais
Title in English
Reification and utopia in american science fiction of the Cold War
Keywords in English
Cold War
Materialist criticism
Reification
Science fiction
Utopia
Abstract in English
This dissertation, Reification and Utopia in Science Fiction of the Cold War, aims at analyzing three novels and a short-story produced in the United States in the 1950s, all part of the science fiction genre. They are A Canticle for Leibowitz by Walter Miller Jr, written between 1955 and 1957; Get out of my sky by James Blish, written between 1956 and 1957; The Space Merchants by Frederik Pohl and C.M. Kornbluth, written in 1953; and "Invasion from Inner Space" by Howard Koch, published in 1959. The objective is to study and understand the way in which the social forces that formed the structure of feeling of that time was materialized in the works. In order to do this, we looked for moments of utopia present in the novels and short-story and how such moments are neutralized or displaced by ideological aspects, which block the authors imaginations and creative possibilities. Following the Marxian criticism, we believe that the works of art, even those closely associated to the Culture Industry, are social symbolic acts, which try to answer some of the most pressing questioning of its own time. The analysis is carried out in layers, starting in the textual level, going to the study of narrative structures: point of view, the representation of sapce and time. Afterwards, we selected one fundamental social material to the genre, among those the works include, which is science. We analyzed how such material is revealed in its utopian potentialities or historical restrictions. What all the examination demonstrate is that there is na attempt to displace or neutralize the wish for a change we can find in the narratives. Our hypothesis is that the increasing political closure and repression of the early 1950s was responsible for such difficulty in thinking of viable and positive to the present of future of humanity. This becomes evident when we observe the ending episode of each text of this study. Also, grasping how the authors answered to certain social pressures in the past seems relevant today, as a way of avoiding, in a new moment of repression and crisis, repeated and diverting answers, unconnected with the current real preoccupations.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-04-27
 
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