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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.8.2010.tde-28042010-113707
Document
Author
Full name
Gisele Pereira de Oliveira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Agnolin, Adone (President)
Guarinello, Norberto Luiz
Usarski, Frank
Title in Portuguese
As faces da Devi: a mulher na Índia antiga em sacrifício, ritos de passagem e ordem social na literatura sânscrita
Keywords in Portuguese
História Antiga
Índia
Literatura sânscrita
Mulheres
Ritos de passagem
Sacrifício
Abstract in Portuguese
A mulher brähmaëa (sacerdotisa) na Índia antiga é o um dos agentes principais e intermediários entre os homens e os deuses; sendo imprescindível aos rituais (sacrifícios de fogo solenes e públicos). Nas interações entre os humanos, as mulheres de todas as camadas da sociedade são privilegiadas como agentes dos ritos da hospitalidade, ou seja, da permuta da dádiva. Além disso, a mulher é o foco da maioria dos ritos de passagem, visto que estes são realizados antes do nascimento, durante a gestação, o que envolve, assim, a mãe diretamente. Ao mesmo tempo, a mulher relativiza o ideal ritual e social, variando a norma, de acordo com as circunstâncias e as escolhas pessoais. O objetivo dessa dissertação é discorrer sobre quais papéis rituais e sociais são delegados às mulheres na sociedade da Índia antiga. Para tanto, selecionamos, apresentamos e comentamos os ritos em que haja a inserção das mulheres, descrevendo suas funções, seus deveres e direitos, sua posição culturalmente estabelecida e a relações entre o âmbito ritual e a sociedade por extensão a partir das literaturas de cunho rituais e jurídico-religiosas, divididas em duas grandes categorias, de acordo com a tradição; quais sejam: Çruti e Småti, isto é, o ouvido e o lembrado. Nesse exercício analítico de cunho histórico-religioso, tentamos dar conta do nosso problema principal: qual o lugar da mulher na Índia antiga ritual e, por conseguinte, socialmente, conforme representada na literatura sânscrita.
Title in English
The faces of the Devi: women in ancient India on sacrifice, life-cycle rites and social order in the sanskrit literature
Keywords in English
Ancient History
India
Life-cycle rites
Sacrifice
Sanskrit literature
Women
Abstract in English
The brähmaëa woman (priestess) in Ancient India is the main and intermediate agent between men and gods; being indispensable in rituals (fire sacrifices, both public and solemn). In the interactions between men, women of all social divisions are privileged as the agents of hospitality rites, i.e., in the exchange of gifts. Moreover, women are the object of most life-cycle rites, since they are performed before birth, during pregnancy, which involves the mother directly. Besides, women adapt the ideals of social and ritual actions, varying the norms, according to circumstances, and personal choices. The objective of this dissertation is to depict the ritual and social roles which are assigned to women in the society of Ancient India as they are culturally thought and created. In order to do so, we selected, presented and commented about the rites in which women are included, describing their functions, duties and rights; observing their socially and culturally established position in relation to the ritual and social realms, in the terms presented by the ritual and religious/law literature, divided in two major categories in the Indian tradition: Çruti e Småti, i.e., what has been heard and what is recalled. In this religious-historical attempt of analysis, we aim to answer, or at least, to point at and think over, the main problem we acknowledge: what is womens domain in Ancient India when it comes to ritual and social ideals as represented in the Sanskrit Literature.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-04-28
 
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