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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.8.2019.tde-06122019-183942
Document
Author
Full name
Daniela Tonello Levy
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Novinsky, Anita Waingort (President)
Goldfarb, José Luiz
Schvartzman, Gabriel Steinberg
Silva, Lina Gorenstein Ferreira da
Title in Portuguese
O papel dos judeus convertidos no desenvolvimento das Minas. 1700-1750
Keywords in Portuguese
Brasil
Cristão novo
Diamante
Inquisição
Mineração
Abstract in Portuguese
Pesquisas nas últimas décadas revelaram uma nova realidade na história dos portugueses de origem sefaradita. Foram os pioneiros nas descobertas do ouro e diamantes na nova colônia, Brasil. Nas montanhosas terras das Minas Gerais viveram no século XVIII numerosos judeus que, após a Conversão Forçada em 1497, trouxeram para a região costumes, rituais e crenças, diferentes da população cristã, herdados de seus antepassados judeus. Certos costumes e crenças foram seguidos na maior clandestinidade, enquanto outros desapareceram completamente. A comunicação entre os conversos se dava por meio de símbolos, verdadeiros códigos secretos, apesar da vigilância rigorosa que a Inquisição impôs sobre a colônia na época de sua grande prosperidade aurífera. Envolvidos com a extração de diamantes e com o comércio, alguns cristãos novos se tornaram verdadeiros magnatas, e ajudavam os empobrecidos conversos que chegavam fugitivos do Reino. Os recém-chegados traziam notícias de Portugal, Espanha, Holanda e ensinavam aos já esquecidos cristãos novos do Brasil práticas judaicas que o tempo havia apagado. As datas festivas lembradas, o calendário, as orações, eram ensinadas aos mineiros. Minha pesquisa concentra-se especificamente na região do Tijuco e procura conhecer as relações existentes entre os moradores do Distrito Diamantino com o restante das Minas. Analisei, através das fontes inquisitoriais encontradas em documentos do Arquivo da Torre do Tombo em Lisboa, o núcleo constituído por cristãos novos na região diamantina e os caminhos secretos que os mineiros construíram para chegar às Minas, também os tipos humanos que viveram nessa região e sua mentalidade esclarecida, que influenciaram de maneira pioneira as ideias de liberdade de pensamento na colônia.
Title in English
The role of converted Jews in the development of mines. 1700-1750
Keywords in English
Brazil
Diamonds
Inquisition
Mining
New Christians
Abstract in English
Research in the last decades has revealed a new reality in the history of the Portuguese Sephardi. One of the aims of the Portuguese since the beginning was to discover gold and diamonds in the new colony, Brazil. There was a myth about the Brazilian Eldorado, based on the findings in the Spanish America. The Sephardic Jews, descendants from the Jews converted in 1497, were the pioneers in the discovery of gold and diamonds in Portuguese America. The difficult life for the new Christians in Portugal after the establishment of the Inquisition, led a group of Marranos to leave for the New World, where they thought they would have freedom and new opportunities. In Brazil, the New Christians joined Old Christians elite, making important deals and partnerships with them and being part of the same social circles. After the finding of diamonds was disclosed, British, Dutch and French companies, interested in the business of diamonds cutting and its commerce, contacted New Christian businessmen who lived in Minas looking to start a society. Conversos from Minas acted as middlemen, transporting diamonds, golden coins and letters of credit from Brazil to Europe. The economic success after the discovery of Minas made the Inquisition turn to Brazils mining region. The former mining paradise turned into a great trap for the New Christians in a short time. The Sephardic believed to be safe, deep into the Brazilian backcountry, but the Inquisition formed a network of kinsmen (familiares) and officers responsible for investigating and preparing accusations against the conversos. I analyzed, through the inquisitorial sources, found in Tower of Tombo Archive in Lisbon, the constitution of new communities in the diamond region. The secret paths that were built to reach the Mines, their secrets communications and their open minds that shaped the new ideas of freedom in the colony.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-12-06
 
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