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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.8.2014.tde-26052014-124433
Document
Author
Full name
Andre Luiz Passos Santos
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2013
Supervisor
Committee
Colistete, Renato Perim (President)
Gremaud, Amaury Patrick
Loureiro, Felipe Pereira
Title in Portuguese
Estrutura das receitas e despesas da União: do fim dos "Anos Dourados" ao início do "Milagre Econômico", 1960-1968
Keywords in Portuguese
Castello Branco
Despesas sociais
Jânio Quadros
João Goulart
Política fiscal
Reforma tributária
Abstract in Portuguese
Esta dissertação analisa a composição e as variações das receitas e despesas da União no período da crise dos anos 1960 (1960-1968), utilizando como fonte primária os Balanços Gerais da União, publicados pelo Ministério da Fazenda. O objetivo principal é compreender a transformação ocorrida nas contas fiscais do país a partir do golpe civil-militar de 1964. Os governos Jânio Quadros e João Goulart tentaram aumentar a arrecadação de tributos, a fim de satisfazer as necessidades de caixa do Estado e prover os investimentos necessários para a industrialização, mas esbarraram no intenso conflito distributivo que marcou a época e não conseguiram aprovar no Congresso Nacional a reforma tributária que pretendiam. O regime militar, sufocadas as resistências dos trabalhadores, teve liberdade para implementar uma ampla reforma fiscal, dotando o Estado de recursos para ampliar a intervenção estatal no domínio econômico e reduzir os crônicos déficits públicos, que ajudaram a provocar a alta de preços nos anos anteriores. A análise dos dados dos Balanços Gerais da União mostra que a reforma tributária concentrou a arrecadação fiscal nas mãos do governo federal, em detrimento de estados e municípios, e aumentou a regressividade da carga de impostos. O crescimento da receita possibilitou aumentar os investimentos, os gastos de custeio e os gastos sociais. Porém, o acréscimo dos gastos sociais foi apropriado por grupos privilegiados, por meio de aumentos na aposentadoria de servidores públicos e do crescimento das verbas para a educação de nível superior. É possível que a política fiscal do regime militar tenha tido impacto significativo nas condições que permitiram a eclosão do milagre econômico de 1968-1973, e provavelmente contribuiu decisivamente para o agravamento da desigualdade social no Brasil.
Title in English
Structure of revenues and expenditures of federal government: from the end of the "Golden Years" to the beginning of the "Economic Miracle", 1960-1968
Keywords in English
Castello Branco
Fiscal policy
Jânio Quadros
João Goulart
Social expenditures
Tax reform
Abstract in English
This thesis analyses the composition and changes in revenues and expenses of Brazils federal government during the crisis of the 1960s (1960-1968), using as a primary source the Balanços Gerais da União, published by the Ministry of Finance. The main objective of the thesis is to understand the transformation that occurred in the fiscal accounts after the civil-military coup of 1964. Jânio Quadros and João Goulart administrations attempted to increase the collection of taxes in order to keep the high economic and industrial growth rates, but faced intense distributive conflict and disputes. The military regime destroyed the militant trade unions, managed to make a wide tax reform, providing the state funds to expand its intervention in the economy and reduce the public deficit that helped to fuel high inflation at the time. From a detailed analysis of the federal accounts, we conclude that tax reform implemented in 1964-1966 concentrated the revenues in the federal government at the expense of states and municipalities, and increased the social unfairness of the tax burden. Revenue growth enabled increased investment, spending and funding social expenditures. However, the expansion in social expenditures was appropriated by privileged groups, through higher current spending, generous retirement pensions of civil and military servants and more funding for higher education. We suggest that fiscal policy of the military regime had a significant impact on the conditions that allowed the outbreak of the economic miracle of 1968-1973, and probably to the worsening social inequality in Brazil.
 
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Publishing Date
2014-05-26
 
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