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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.8.2019.tde-11122019-161530
Document
Author
Full name
Ricardo Vinícius Ibañez Mantovani
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Oliva, Luís César Guimarães (President)
Barros, Douglas Ferreira
Martins, Andrei Venturini
Silva, Franklin Leopoldo e
Title in Portuguese
A sociedade em Blaise Pascal
Keywords in Portuguese
Amor-próprio
Justiça
Pascal
Política
Sociedade
Abstract in Portuguese
Apesar de Blaise Pascal não ter se preocupado em elaborar uma filosofia política, suas obras estão repletas de considerações que, quando reunidas, formam um valoroso instrumental teórico a partir do qual se podem compreender os mais diversos aspectos da vida em sociedade. Assim, no intuito de clarificar as teses pascalianas que versam sobre esse tema, nos dedicamos, primeiramente, a expor alguns pontos do pensamento de Hugo Grotius e Thomas Hobbes que, por serem dois dos maiores filósofos políticos da época de nosso autor, tecem o pano de fundo sobre o qual as ideias pascalianas são desenvolvidas - e do qual geralmente destoam. Num segundo momento, analisamos a posição pascaliana concernente ao surgimento dos Estados, indicando que se sua origem se deve à violência, sua durabilidade depende da imaginação dos homens - e não de sua razão, que, como veremos, tem sua capacidade de conhecer a Verdade posta em xeque pelo filósofo. Terminamos a segunda parte de nosso trabalho evidenciando, no entanto, que o desconhecimento da Justiça não exime os governantes de exercer seu poder dentro de certos limites que não podem ser impunemente ultrapassados. Por fim, aproximandoo das teses elaboradas por Agostinho em A cidade de Deus (e marcando, de uma vez por todas, sua distância com relação a autores que, como Cícero, defendem que os indivíduos buscam a companhia de seus semelhantes por prazer), sustentamos que Pascal vê no amor - ou, mais especificamente, no amor-próprio - o verdadeiro fundamento da vida social.
Title in English
The society according to Blaise Pascal
Keywords in English
Justice
Pascal
Politics
Self-love
Society
Abstract in English
Although Blaise Pascal did not bother to elaborate a political philosophy, his works are replete with considerations that, when combined, form a valuable theoretical instrument from which one can understand the most diverse aspects of social life. Thus, in order to clarify the Pascalian theses dealing with this subject, we are primarily devoted to exposing some points of the thinking of Hugo Grotius and Thomas Hobbes, who, being two of the greatest political philosophers of our author's time, weave the cloth of the background on which the Pascalian ideas are developed - and of which they generally disagree. In a second moment, we analyze the Pascalian position concerning the emergence of states, indicating that, if their origin is due to violence, their durability depends on the imagination of men - and not on their reason, which, as we shall see, has its capacity to know the Truth put in check by the philosopher. We conclude the second part of our work, however, showing that ignorance of justice does not exempt rulers from exercising their power within certain limits that cannot be overcome with impunity. Finally, by approaching him to the theses elaborated by Augustine in The City of God (and marking, once and for all, his distance from authors who, like Cicero, argue that individuals seek the company of their peers for pleasure), we maintain that Pascal sees in love - or, more specifically, in self-love - the true foundation of social life.
 
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Publishing Date
2019-12-11
 
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