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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2007.tde-10102007-150946
Document
Author
Full name
Edson Luis de Almeida Teles
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2007
Supervisor
Committee
Ribeiro, Renato Janine (President)
Bons, Jeanne Marie Gagnebin de
Moises, Claudia Perrone
Safatle, Vladimir Pinheiro
Silva, Márcio Orlando Seligmann
Title in Portuguese
Brasil e África do Sul: os paradoxos da democracia. Memória política em democracias com herança autoritária
Keywords in Portuguese
Anistia
Democracia
Direitos humanos
Filosofia política
Hannah Arendt
Jacques Derrida
Memória
Perdão
Reconciliação
Abstract in Portuguese
As catástrofes coletivas impostas pelos regimes autoritários, sejam eles racistas, tal como o apartheid na África do Sul, sejam eles diretamente políticos, tal como a ditadura militar no Brasil, implicam esforços diários de reflexão e ação política. O que caracteriza estes governos é a violação aos direitos de seus cidadãos por meio de um brutal aparato policial-militar. E o pior: todo esse esquema foi montado e mantido pelo Estado, que institucionalizou a prisão, a tortura, o desaparecimento e o assassinato. As sociedades têm enfrentado o seguinte problema: como conciliar o passado doloroso com um presente democrático, administrando os conflitos que com a mera passagem institucional de um governo de exceção para um democrático não se encerraram. Isto porque as violações aos direitos humanos não se restringiram às instituições políticas, mas, indo muito além, atingiram os indivíduos e alteraram significativamente a subjetividade dessas sociedades. A oposição entre a razão política pacificadora do Estado e as memórias doloridas sobre a ditadura militar brasileira obstrui a expressão pública da dor e reduz a memória às emoções privadas. A sociedade sul-africana, valorizando as narrativas, tornou públicas estas experiências ao divulgar as narrativas construídas em seu espaço, criando um impacto na sociedade, seja em suas subjetividades ou mesmo nas políticas públicas adotadas posteriormente. Abriu mão de punir quem confessasse tudo, em nome de uma conciliação nacional. Já no Brasil, a conciliação promovida entre a anistia de 1979 e a democratização de 1985 teve por preço a omissão das memórias do horror. Nossa idéia é que diante da queda de investimento no diálogo e na convivência pública democrática, a publicidade dos traumas e ressentimentos por meio das narrativas poderia contribuir para a consumação do luto e para o aprimoramento dos elos sociais.
Title in English
Brazil and South Africal: the democracy´s paradoxes - political memory in democracies with autoritarian legacy
Keywords in English
Amnesty
Democracy
Hannah Arendt
Human rights
Jacques Derrida
Memory
Pardon
Political philosophy
Reconciliation
Abstract in English
The collective catastrophes imposed by authoritarian regimes, be they of racist character, like apartheid in South Africa, or be they of strictly political character, like the military dictatorship in Brazil, require daily efforts of reflection as well as political action. These governments were characterized by their systematic violation of their citizens' rights by brutal military and police apparatus. Worst of all, the whole scheme was set up and maintained by a State which institutionalized imprisonment, torture, disappearance and murder. Thus, these societies are left today to face a difficult issue: how to reconcile such painful past with a democratic present, and still manage the conflicts that do not end with a mere institutional passage from a dictatorial government to a democratic one. Human rights violations were not limited to political institutions, but went far beyond; they reached individuals, and they modified the subjectivity of those societies significantly. The opposition between the State pacificatory political reason and the painful memories regarding Brazilian military dictatorship obstructs public expression of pain and reduces memory to private emotions. In contrast, by valuing the narratives of the past, the South African society tried to recover the memory of the painful moments making these experiences public by publishing their narratives. South Africans gave up punishing those State criminals with the only condition they would confess everything, in order to foster a national conciliation. In Brazil, however, the ideal of a national conciliation to put an end to military rule paid the huge price of silencing the memories of pain, torture, and death. This had an impact on society, on its subjectivity and even on the public politics adopted later. Our point of view is that due to the lack of investment in the dialogue and in the democratic social communion the publicizing of traumas and resentments by means of narratives could contribute to realization of the mourning, thus promoting social bonds.
 
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Publishing Date
2007-10-10
 
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