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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.8.2004.tde-06012012-113835
Document
Author
Full name
Robinson Guitarrari
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2004
Supervisor
Committee
Plastino, Caetano Ernesto (President)
Chiappin, Jose Raimundo Novaes
Oliveira, Jose Carlos Pinto de
Silva, Franklin Leopoldo e
Videira, Antonio Augusto Passos
Title in Portuguese
Incomensurabilidade e racionalidade científica em Thomas Kuhn: uma análise do relativismo epistemológico
Keywords in Portuguese
Incomensurabilidade
Mudança científica
Racionalidade científica
Relativismo cognitivo
Relativismo epistemológico
Thomas Kuhn
Abstract in Portuguese
O debate atual sobre a racionalidade científica tem envolvido uma tomada de posição quanto ao relativismo epistemológico. Um dos focos do debate consiste na superação do relativismo presente em pronunciamentos de Thomas Kuhn sobre a escolha científica. Procurando libertar-se de um relativismo kuhniano nas justificações de escolhas científicas, Hilary Putnam e Larry Laudan apresentam estratégias bastante distintas. Putnam vê incoerências autodestrutivas em tal relativismo, especialmente por duas razões: sua formulação seria auto-refutante e, quanto aos atributos cognitivos, essa posição não permitiria distinguir o homem de qualquer outro ser. Laudan procurou desmistificar os efeitos que a incomensurabilidade kuhniana teria causado para uma visão de racionalidade dirigida por regras metodológicas e, além disso, buscou mostrar a falta de poder explicativo do relativismo decorrente dela. O presente trabalho investiga se ainda há razão para considerar que o relativismo gerado pela incomensurabilidade kuhniana constitui uma ameaça à racionalidade científica. Apresentamos um modelo kuhniano de racionalidade, com base em uma análise dos textos de Kuhn sobre a escolha de paradigmas, que ressalta o papel da incomensurabilidade de problemas e padrões científicos. Procuramos mostrar que duas das principais acusações de incoerência, elaboradas por Putnam, não atingem tal modelo. Por fim, defendemos que esse modelo kuhniano de racionalidade apresenta várias restrições para o efetivo estabelecimento das críticas que Laudan lhe dirige.
Title in English
Incommensurability and scientific rationality in Thomas Kuhn: an analysis of epistemological relativism
Keywords in English
Cognitive relativism
Incommensurability
Relativism epistemological
Scientific change
Scientific rationality
Thomas Kuhn
Abstract in English
The current debate on scientific rationality has involved taking sides regarding the question of epistemological relativism. The debate is focused, among other things, in overcoming the relativism present in Thomas Kuhns statements about scientific choice. Hilary Putnam and Larry Laudan, aiming at dispensing with a Kuhnian relativism in the justification of scientific choices, propose quite different strategies. Putnam sees self-destructive incoherencies in such relativism, mainly for two reasons: first, its formulation would be self-defeating and, second, this position wouldnt allow one to distinguish man from any other being as regards cognitive attributes. Laudan attempted to demystify the effects that Kuhnian incommensurability could cause to a vision of rationality governed by methodological rules, and, furthermore, attempted to show the lack of explanatory power of the relativism that follows from it. The present work inquires whether there is still reason to consider that the relativism originated by Kuhnian incommensurability constitutes a menace to scientific rationality. We present a Kuhnian model of rationality, based on an analysis of Kuhns texts on paradigm choice, which highlights the role of incommensurability as regards scientific problems and standards. We aim to show that two of the main charges of incoherence, formulated by Putnam, arent able to affect the model. Lastly, we maintain that this Kuhnian model of rationality poses various constraints on the actual establishment of the criticisms directed against it by Laudan.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-01-06
 
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