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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.8.2020.tde-28052020-220710
Document
Author
Full name
Augusto Leal Rinaldi
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2020
Supervisor
Committee
Veiga, João Paulo Candia (President)
Oliveira, Amâncio Jorge Silva Nunes de
Pecequilo, Cristina Soreanu
Stuenkel, Jan Oliver Della Costa
Title in Portuguese
BRICS: alinhamento estratégico e soft balancing
Keywords in Portuguese
Alinhamento
BRICS
Novo Banco de Desenvolvimento
R2P
Soft Balancing
Abstract in Portuguese
O comportamento internacional de países emergentes é um tópico que tem gerado debate entre estudiosos de Ciência Política e Relações Internacionais. A literatura especializada destaca o grupo que compõe países como Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China e África do Sul (BRICS). Contudo, não há consenso quanto à definição conceitual mais adequada ao grupo. Alguns analistas o consideram um "grupo de coalizão", enquanto outros um "bloco de países com objetivos difusos". Nesta tese de doutoramento, propomos uma abordagem que deriva de uma base teórica não muito comumente utilizada nos estudos sobre o BRICS: as alianças internacionais. Sendo assim, as teorias de aliança internacional, e a noção de alinhamento estratégico, em particular, fornecem uma das ferramentas teóricas centrais para estudar o BRICS. Outra abordagem teórica relevante para discuti-lo advém do realismo estrutural e das perspectivas de balanceamento de poder, em especial, o conceito de soft balancing. Diante disso, com vistas a avançar a pesquisa, foram selecionados dois estudos de caso para abordar, empiricamente, o BRICS. O primeiro é a atuação do BRICS nos conflitos da Líbia (2011) e Síria (2011-) e a discussão em torno de intervenção humanitária nestes países; o outro caso é a criação, pelo BRICS, do Novo Banco de Desenvolvimento e sua relação com a estrutura econômico-financeira internacional vigente. Os resultados desta tese sugerem que o BRICS pode ser considerado um alinhamento estratégico entre potências emergentes e que a principal estratégia de atuação internacional que tem recorrido para defender seus interesses centrais são instrumentos de soft balancing. Com isso, contrapomos-nos às correntes que o consideram um grupo de coalizão ou um bloco difuso, e afirmamos que suas ações não visam a derrubar ou subverter a ordem internacional contemporânea. Buscamos, com isso, tratar o BRICS com maior acuidade teórico-conceitual e contribuir com o avanço das pesquisas nessa temática, abrindo novos caminhos de investigação para o próprio BRICS e outros arranjos e grupos de países emergentes.
Title in English
BRICS: strategic alignment and soft balancing
Keywords in English
Alignment
BRIC
New Development Bank
R2P
Soft Balancing
Abstract in English
The emergence and behaviour of groups of developing countries is a topic that has generated wide-ranging discussions among experts in Political Science and International Relations. When it comes to these groups, the literature sheds light on the one comprising Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS). However, does not exist a consensus concerning the BRICS proper conceptual definition. Some scholars tend to consider it a "coalition group", while others as a "bloc of countries with diffuse objectives". In this doctoral dissertation, we propose a different approach that comes from a theoretical basis not so commonly used in the analysis of the BRICS: the international alliances. Therefore, this theory, and particularly the notion of strategic alignment, provide one of the fundamental theoretical tool with which we approach the BRICS. Another relevant theoretical tool used here comes from the structural realism and the perspectives about balancing power, particularly soft balancing. Having said that, it was selected two specific cases to approach the BRICS empirically. First, the case of the BRICS's behaviour towards the conflicts in Libya (2011) and Syria (2011-), and the debates surrounding the possibilities to advance humanitarian intervention in these countries; the other case is the creation of the New Development Bank and its relation with the established economic-financiers institutions. The results suggest that the BRICS may be considered a strategic alignment among emerging powers, which the main international strategy to meet its interests is the use of soft balancing measures. Thus, we contradict the authors that consider the BRICS a coalition group or a bloc and, instead, we argue that its international behaviour dos not aim to subvert the current international order. We have sought to give a theoretical-conceptual treatment to the BRICS's analysis and to contribute to the advancement of researches in this theme, open new ways to investigate the BRICS and other arrangements of emerging powers.
 
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Publishing Date
2020-06-01
 
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