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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.76.2003.tde-09052005-165542
Document
Author
Full name
João Renato Carvalho Muniz
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2003
Supervisor
Committee
Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira de (President)
Azevedo Junior, Walter Filgueira de
Costa, Luciano da Fontoura
Title in Portuguese
"Aplicação da bioinformática no estudo dos genes e enzimas envolvidos na síntese da goma fastidiana produzida pela xylella fastidiosa"
Keywords in Portuguese
amarelinho
bioinformática
CVC
enzimas
goma fastidiana
GumH
modelagem molecular
modeller
operon gum
xylella fastidiosa
Abstract in Portuguese
Xylella fastidiosa é uma bactéria Gram-negativa, limitada ao xilema das plantas e o agente causador de diversas doenças em importantes plantações como citros, videiras, mirta, amêndoa, arbustos e café. Em citros, X. fastidiosa causa a Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC) ou “amarelinho”. Nove enzimas (GumB, C, D, E, F, H, J, K e M) estão envolvidas nas etapas biossintéticas de um polissacarídeo extracelular (EPS), chamado de goma fastidiana, um dos mecanismos envolvidos na patogênese da bactéria. Essas enzimas catalisam reações de adição de açúcares, polimerização e exportação do EPS através da membrana da bactéria. No presente trabalho, ferramentas de bioinformática foram utilizadas para o estudo e entendimento da biossíntese da goma fastidiana. As nove enzimas foram estudadas quanto ao seu conteúdo de estrutura secundária, análise de hidrofobicidade e das regiões transmembrânicas, classificação quanto as suas funções. A construção de modelos estruturais para as enzimas Gums através de comparação por homologia seqüencial mostrou ser um processo impossível, devido a falta de moléculas homólogas com estruturas tridimensionais conhecidas. Por outro lado, métodos de reconhecimento de enovelamento mostraram bons resultados e comparações entre as estruturas secundárias das enzimas Gums foram calculadas com a utilização dos programas GenThreader e THREADER 3.3. Modelos tridimensionais para as enzimas GumB, GumK, GumM, GumJ e GumC foram construídos com o programa MODELLER 6.0a e validados com o programa Procheck e VERIFY 3D. Para construção do modelo da GumH (enzima que catalisa a adição da GDP-manose em um lipídio carreador poliprenol), o GenThreader encontrou similaridades quando comparada a MurG (E.coli), 2-epimerase (E. coli), GtfB (Amycolatopsis orientalis) e beta-GT de fago T4. Todos os modelos são bastante semelhantes e compostos por dois domínios (alfa/beta), ambos similares ao motivo de ligação de nucleotídeos Rossmann fold e separados por uma fenda profunda, que, provavelmente, forma o sítio de ligação da GDP-manose. Estudos da interação entre proteína e substrato foram obtidos com a utilização do programa FLO. O alinhamento seqüencial da GumH com outras onze glicosiltransferases mostrou regiões bastante conservadas, incluindo o motivo EX7E presente no sítio de ligação do substrato na proteína. Considerações a respeito das interações do substrato GDP-manose com a enzima GumH e do mecanismo da reação foram feitas. Essas análises enfatizam o modelo obtido para a GumH, que representa a primeira estrutura proposta para as enzimas envolvidas na síntese da goma fastidiana.
Title in English
"Bioinformatic applied in studies of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharide, fastidian gum, produced by Xylella Fastidiosa"
Keywords in English
amarelinho
bioinformatic
CVC
enzymes
fastidian gum
GumH
modeller
molecular modeling
operon gum
Xylella fastidiosa
Abstract in English
Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-dwelling, insect-transmitted gamma-protobacterium that causes pathogenicity in citrus plants and many others important crops such as grapevine, periwinkle, almond, oleander and coffee. In citrus plants, X. fastidiosa causes citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) or “amarelinho”. Nine enzymes (GumB, C, D, E, F, H, J, K and M) are involved in the biosynthetic pathway of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) called fastidian gum which could be involved in the pathogenicity of the bacterium. These enzymes catalyses sugars addition reactions, polymerization and discharge of the EPS through the bacteria’s membrane. We have used bioinformatic tools to study these enzymes and to understand the gum biosynthesis. The nine enzymes were studied regarding to its secondary structure content, analysis of hidrophobicity and transmembrane regions, and yet function classification. The construction of structural models using sequential homology was shown to be impossible, due to the necessity of homologues molecules whose three-dimensional structures are known. On the other hand, pairwises comparisons of secondary structures showed good results and were realized with GenThreader and THREADER 3.3 programs. Three-dimensional structures to GumB, GumK, GumM, GumJ and GumC enzymes were constructed using MODELLER 6.0a and validated with Procheck and VERIFY 3D programs. To construct the model of GumH (enzyme that catalyse the addiction of a GDP-mannose on a polyprenol phosphate carrier), GenThreader found folding similarities when compared to MurG and UDP-Acetylglucosamine 2-Epimerase (from E. coli), GtfB (from Amycolatopsis orientalis) and beta-GT (from T4 phage). The models are very similar consisting of two alpha/beta open sheet domains, both alike in topology to the Rossmann nucleotide-binding folds, and separated by a deep cleft which probably forms the GDP-mannose binding site. Studies of the interaction between enzyme and docked substrate were carried out using the FLO program. The sequence alignment between GumH and another eleven glycosiltransferases showed several preserved regions including the EX7E motif present on the substrate binding site. The interactions between enzyme-GDP-mannose substrate and the mechanism of the reaction were studied. These analyses emphasize the three-dimensional model constructed for GumH that represents the first structural information for enzymes involved in fastidian gum synthesis.
 
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Publishing Date
2005-05-11
 
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