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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.75.2017.tde-25102017-144202
Document
Author
Full name
Letícia Verdicchio
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Azevedo, Eduardo Bessa (President)
Vieira, Eny Maria
Daniel, Luiz Antonio
Pointer-Malpass, Geoffroy Roger
Title in Portuguese
Reúso de água e aquicultura: inativação de fármacos e interferentes endócrinos pelo processo foto-Fenton solar
Keywords in Portuguese
Contaminação
Esgoto sanitário
Fármacos
Tratamento de esgotos sanitários
Abstract in Portuguese

A presença de poluentes em concentrações na faixa de ng L-1 e µg L-1 nos diferentes tipos de água é uma grande preocupação ambiental porque podem apresentar efeitos nocivos aos seres vivos e os sistemas convencionais de tratamento de água e esgoto não são eficientes em removê-los. Os processos oxidativos avançados (POA) são considerados métodos eficazes para a degradação desse tipo de contaminantes e podem ser utilizados para tratar efluentes com a finalidade de reúso em diferentes aplicações como, por exemplo, agricultura ou aquicultura. Assim, o objetivo desta Dissertação foi avaliar a inativação de fármacos e interferentes endócrinos, em um reator tipo coletor parabólico composto, pelo processo foto-Fenton mediado por radiação solar em efluente de estação de tratamento de esgoto. Primeiramente, foi construído o reator, estabelecida a extração em fase sólida como a técnica aplicada para o preparo das amostras a serem analisadas por CLAE/DAD e desenvolvido o método para identificação de sete contaminantes (sulfatiazol, sulfamezarina, sulfadimetoxina, sulfametoxazol, metilparabeno, propilparabeno e naproxeno) no efluente de estação de tratamento de esgoto. Na sequência, foram realizados experimentos com o intuito de otimizar o tratamento e estabeleceram-se as concentrações de H2O2 e ferro (III). Por fim, foram realizados ensaios cinéticos e, adicionalmente, testes ecotoxicológicos para avaliar a ecotoxicidade do efluente antes e depois de 300 min do tratamento foto-Fenton solar. Os resultados mostraram que mesmo após 300 min de reação não houve a completa degradação dos contaminantes, entretanto, o efluente tratado não se mostrou prejudicial aos organismos Daphnia similis e Lactuca sativa.

Title in English
Water reuse: inactivation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors by the solar photo-Fenton process
Keywords in English
Contamination
Drugs
Sanitary sewage
Treatment of sewage
Abstract in English
Currently, the presence of pollutants in concentrations ranging from ng L-1 to µg L-1 in different types of waters constitutes a major environmental concern as they can be harmful to living beings and conventional water and wastewater treatment systems are not efficient in removing them. Advanced oxidation processes are effective methods for the degradation of this type of contaminants and can be applied to wastewater treatments for beneficial water reuse purposes such as agriculture or aquaculture. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the inactivation of some pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors, by using a compound parabolic collector reactor, by solar photo-Fenton in municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent. First of all, the reactor was constructed, solid phase extraction (SPE) was determined as the technique used to prepare the samples to be analyzed by HPLC/DAD and the methodology to identify the seven contaminants (sulfathiazole, sulfamerazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, methylparaben, propylparaben, and naproxen) in the WWTP effluent was developed. Then, experiments were carried out with the purpose of optimizing the treatment and the concentrations of H2O2 and iron(III) were established. Finally, kinetic tests and, additionally, ecotoxicological assays were carried out to evaluate the effluent ecotoxicity before and after 300 min of the solar photo-Fenton treatment. It has been observed that even after 300 min of reaction there was an incomplete degradation of the pollutants, however, the treated effluent was not harmful to the test-organisms Daphnia similis and Lactuca sativa.
 
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Publishing Date
2017-10-27
 
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