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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.75.2016.tde-17112016-141429
Document
Author
Full name
Luis Felipe da Silva
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Azevedo, Eduardo Bessa (President)
Carneiro, Renato Lajarim
Zuin, Vânia Gomes
Title in Portuguese
Análise quimiométrica da distribuição de quimioterápicos antimicrobianos (Fluoroquinolonas e Sulfonamidas) na Baía de Ubatuba
Keywords in Portuguese
Fluoroquinolona
PCA
Sulfonamida
Ubatuba
Abstract in Portuguese

Os quimioterápicos antimicrobianos são considerados contaminantes emergentes, com a capacidade de criar resistência em bactérias. Têm sido o foco de inúmeras pesquisas relacionadas a impactos ambientais, mas no Brasil, as pesquisas sobre a sua ocorrência em ambientes aquáticos continentais e costeiros são escassas. A cidade de Ubatuba tem uma densidade demográfica cinco vezes maior que a média nacional, aumentada em até doze vezes no verão, pressionando ainda mais os ecossistemas da região. Os rios Acaraú, Lagoa-Tavares, Grande e Indaiá deságuam na baía de Ubatuba, comprometendo a qualidade das suas águas. Este trabalho investigou a contribuição da descarga desses rios para a ocorrência e distribuição de quimioterápicos antimicrobianos (fluoroquinolonas e sulfonamidas) na baía de Ubatuba. Foi analisado um total de 36 amostras de água superficial. As coletas foram realizadas no período seco/chuvoso de 2014/2015. Para a determinação e quantificação dos fármacos foi utilizada SPE como método de preparo de amostra e CLAE-MS/MS para a detecção e quantificação dos antimicrobianos estudados. As características físico-químicas pH, temperatura, salinidade, oxigênio dissolvido, potencial redox (ORP), além do Carbono Orgânico Dissolvido (COD) também foram determinados para caracterização das águas da região. A distribuição espaço-temporal dos fármacos e a possível associação com os demais dados investigados foi avaliada pela ferramenta quimiométrica CA, visando à extração da maior quantidade possível de informações. Os rios e, consequentemente a baía estavam impactados pelo despejo de esgoto doméstico e os seguintes quimioterápicos antimicrobianos foram encontrados: sulfametoxazol (SMX), sulfatiazol (STZ), sulfacloropiridiazina (SCP), sulfaquinoxalina (SQX) e norfloxacina (NOR). Observou-se uma variação espacial e temporal, nos perfis de contaminação revelados pela CA.

Title in English
Chemometric Analysis of Antimicrobial Chemotherapeutical Distribution (Fluoroquinolones and Sulfonamides) in Ubatuba Bay
Keywords in English
Fluoroquinolone
PCA
sulfonamide
Ubatuba
Abstract in English

Antimicrobial chemotherapeutical agents are considered emerging contaminants capable of creating bacterial resistance. They have been the focus of numerous studies related to environmental impacts, but in Brazil, there is little research on their occurrence in continental and coastal aquatic environments. The city of Ubatuba has a population density five times higher than the national average, which may be increased up to twelve times during the summer, pushing further the region's ecosystems. The rivers Acaraú, Lagoa-Tavares, Grande and Indaiá flow into Ubatuba Bay, compromising the quality of its waters. This work investigated those rivers' discharge contribution on the occurrence and distribution of antimicrobial chemotherapeutical agents (fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides) in Ubatuba Bay. Thirty-six samples of surface water were analyzed. The samples were withdrawn during the dry and rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015, respectively. For the determining and quantifying the antimicrobial chemotherapeutical agents, it was used SPE as a sample preparation method and HPLC?MS/MS for their detection and quantification. Physicochemical characteristics like pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential (ORP), as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were also determined to characterize the waters of the region. The spatial-temporal distribution of the agents and their possible association with other investigated data was assessed by the chemometric tool CA, aiming at extracting the greatest possible amount of information. The rivers and, consequently, the bay were contaminated by domestic sewage discharges and the following antimicrobial chemotherapeutical agents were detected: sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfachloropyridiazine (SCP), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX), and norfloxacin (NOR). The contamination profiles revealed by the CA showed a spatial variation and a temporal one.

 
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Publishing Date
2016-11-21
 
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