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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.75.2016.tde-14092016-141947
Document
Author
Full name
Darlan Ferreira da Silva
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2016
Supervisor
Committee
Rezende, Maria Olimpia de Oliveira (President)
Bianchini Junior, Irineu
Polito, Wagner Luiz
Zuin, Vânia Gomes
Azevedo, Eduardo Bessa
Title in Portuguese
Extração assistida por micro-ondas no preparo de um bioerbicida a partir das folhas da Canavalia ensiformis: aplicação em plantas invasoras na cultura de soja convencional e as consequências no solo
Keywords in Portuguese
Canavalia ensiformis
Emilia sonchifolia
Sida spinosa
bioerbicidas
compostos fenólicos
extração assistida por micro-ondas
HPLC-UV
plantas invasoras
soja
solo
Abstract in Portuguese

Vários compostos químicos são usados para o controle de pragas e doenças na agricultura com a finalidade de aumentar a produtividade. É de conhecimento científico que tais compostos afetam negativamente a saúde humana e animal por meio da contaminação dos alimentos e do meio ambiente. Assim, o uso de substâncias obtidas da própria natureza para o combate de pragas e plantas invasoras é uma alternativa para o controle e, consequente, prevenção da contaminação ambiental. Neste trabalho foram avaliados os extratos aquosos das folhas da leguminosa feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis) como bioerbicida pós-emergente aplicado no controle de plantas invasoras em cultura de soja e seus efeitos no solo. Salienta-se que não há informações sobre os efeitos desses bioerbicida no solo. Os compostos fenólicos, em especial os ácidos fenólicos, têm ação inibitória no crescimento de plantas invasoras. O processo de extração dos compostos fenólicos foi feito em um sistema de digestão por micro-ondas, com aproximadamente 2 g de material vegetal seco, seguida de injeção cromatográfica. Para otimização do procedimento de extração via micro-ondas os parâmetros avaliados foram: tempo de irradiação, temperatura e rampa aplicada. Foram realizadas determinações cromatográficas para identificação e quantificação dos compostos fenólicos: rutina, ácido clorogênico, ácido ferúlico e naringenina presentes nas folhas do feijão-de-porco por HPLC-UV, mediante metodologia de extração por micro-ondas. Todo o trabalho foi desenvolvido de acordo com os requisitos de gestão da qualidade referentes às normas NBR ISO/IEC 17025 e BPL.
Title in English
Microwave assisted extraction in the preparation of a bioherbicide from Canavalia ensiformis leaves: application on weeds in conventional soybean cultivation and the effects on the soil
Keywords in English
Canavalia ensiformis
Emilia sonchifolia
Sida spinosa
bioherbicides
HPLC-UV
microwave-assisted extraction
phenolic compounds
soil
soybean
weeds
Abstract in English

Several chemical compounds are used for pest and disease control in agriculture in order to increase productivity. It is well know that such pesticides adversely affect human and animal health through contamination by food and environment. Thus, the use of substances obtained from nature itself to combat pests and weeds is an alternative for the control of those and, consequently, prevent environmental contamination. This work were assessed aqueous extracts of jack bean leaves (Canavalia ensiformis) as a post-emergent bioherbicide applied in weed control in soybean crops and its effects on the soil. It is noteworthy there is not information on the effects of these bioherbicides on the soil. Phenolics compounds, notably, phenolics acids, have inhibitory action on the growth of weeds. The process of extraction of phenolic compounds was carried out in a digestion system by microwave, using approximately 2 g dry plant material, followed by chromatographic injection. For optimization of the extraction procedure by microwave-assisted extraction the factors evaluated were irradiation time, temperature and ramp time. Chromatographic determinations were performed for identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds: rutin, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and naringenin present in the Canavalia ensiformis leaves by HPLC-UV, through microwave extraction methodology. All the study was developed in compliance with the quality management concepts covered in NBR ISO/IEC 17025 and GLP.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-09-15
 
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