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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.75.2009.tde-25082009-104418
Document
Author
Full name
Poliana Macedo dos Santos
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Carlos, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Colnago, Luiz Alberto (President)
Berlinck, Roberto Gomes de Souza
Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto
Title in Portuguese
Desenvolvimento da técnica de precessão livre no estado estacionário para aumento da razão sinal ruído em espectros de RMN de alta resolução
Keywords in Portuguese
alta resolução
precessão livre no estado estacionário
ressonância magnética nuclear
Abstract in Portuguese
Neste trabalho realizou-se uma analise detalhada das vantagens e desvantagens da sequencia de Precessao Livre no Estado Estacionario (Steady State Free Precession - SSFP) para aquisicao rapida de espectros de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear (RMN) de 13C. O regime de SSFP e obtido atraves da aplicacao de um trem de pulsos de mesma fase, duracao e intensidade, separados por um intervalo de tempo (Tp) menor que os tempos de relaxacao longitudinal (T1) e transversal (T2) da amostra. Nestas condicoes e possivel acumular dezenas de espectros por unidade de T1, proporcionando um incremento significativo na razao sinal/ruido (s/r) do espectro. Ao comparar os resultados obtidos com as sequencias de SSFP e convencional (pulsos de 90 graus e T 5T1 p >= ), verificou-se que a SSFP apresentou um ganho medio de 30 vezes no tempo de analise para uma mesma s/r. No entanto, os espectros obtidos com a SSFP apresentam anomalias de fase e amplitude do sinal, decorrente da refocalizacao da magnetizacao na forma de um eco de spin. Comparou-se tambem a SSFP com a sequencia padrao usada para obtencao de espectros de 13C, que utiliza pulsos de 30 graus e Tp = 1.38s. Neste caso os ganhos da SSFP foram menores (5,5 vezes no tempo de analise para uma mesma s/r) verificando que a sequencia padrao utiliza a vantagem da SSFP (Tp < T1, T2). A formacao do eco e, consequente das anomalias de fase nao sao observadas na sequencia padrao, pois a aquisicao do sinal e truncada em 0,9s, e a ciclagem de fase dos pulsos reduz a formacao do eco, por levar a uma perda de coerencia do sinal SSFP. Neste trabalho tambem analisou-se os metodos propostos por Rudakov, Freeman e Hill e Schwenk para supressao destas anomalias nos espectros de RMN 13C quando adquiridos no regime de SSFP. Os resultados demonstraram que a aplicacao destas metodologias proporciona uma melhora significativa na qualidade do espectro. No entanto, verificou-se que nenhum metodo foi capaz de suprimir totalmente as anomalias de fase e amplitude do sinal.
Title in English
Use of steady state free precession (SSFP) to enhance signal to noise ratio in high resolution NMR
Keywords in English
high resolution
nuclear magnetic ressonance
steady state free precession
Abstract in English
It was performed a detailed analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of Steady State Free Precession (SSFP) sequence for a rapid acquisition of 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra. The SSFP regime is obtained by the application of a pulse train with the same phase, duration and intensity, separated by a time interval (Tp) shorter than the transverse (T2) and longitudinal (T1) relaxation times. In these conditions it is possible to accumulate tens of spectra per units of T1, providing a significant increase in the spectrum signal-to-noise ratio (s/n). By comparing the spectra obtained by SSFP and conventional pulse sequence (90 degree pulse and T 5T1 p >= ) it was noted that SSFP shows an average gain of 30 times in analysis time for the same s/n. However, the SSFP spectra show phase and intensity anomalies due to the refocusing of the magnetization, generating a spin echo. We also compared the SSFP with the standard 13C pulse sequence, that uses a 30 degree pulses and Tp = 1.38 s. In this comparison the SSFP gain were small (5,5 times in analysis time for the same s/n), because the standard sequence also uses the advantage of SSFP (Tp < T1, T2). The echo signal and the phase anomalies are not observed in the standard sequence because the signal acquisition is truncated at 0.9s and the cycling of the pulse phase, that partially destroy the SSFP coherence. We also analyzed the methods proposed by Rudakov, Freeman and Hill and Schwenk to suppress those anomalies in the 13C NMR spectrum when acquired in SSFP regime. The results showed that the application of these methodologies provides a significant improvement in the spectrum quality. However, it was verified that none of the methods were able to completely eliminate the phase and intensity anomalies.
 
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PolianaMSantosR.pdf (2.46 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2009-08-27
 
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