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Doctoral Thesis
Full name
Evandro Piccin
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
São Carlos, 2008
Lanças, Fernando Mauro (President)
Jesus, Dosil Pereira de
Machado, Sergio Antonio Spinola
Silva, José Alberto Fracassi da
Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi
Title in Portuguese
Novas tecnologias para fabricação de microsistemas analíticos e detecção eletroquímica
Keywords in Portuguese
detecção eletroquímica
química analítica
Abstract in Portuguese
Este trabalho de doutorado apresenta o desenvolvimento de novas tecnologias para fabricação de microsistemas analíticos e detecção eletroquímica. Primeiramente, a poliuretana elastomérica, derivada de uma fonte renovável, o óleo de mamona, foi utilizada como um novo e alternativo material para fabricação de microdispositivos. Foram avaliadas as características físicas dos microcanais formados por moldagem, a compatibilidade química com solventes e eletrólitos, as características de superfície através dos ângulos de contato, o EOF em diferentes pHs e a performance analítica em experimentos de eletroforese com detecção eletroquímica. A segunda parte do trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um método para a determinação simultânea de azo-corantes comumente usados na indústria alimentícia. Amaranto, amarelo crepúsculo FCF, amarelo sólido AB, ponceu 4R e vermelho 2G, foram separados e quantificados através de eletroforese em microdispositivos com detecção eletroquímica. Foram estudados e otimizados vários parâmetros que influenciaram a separação eletroforética e detecção eletroquímica, em experimentos realizados usando microdispositivos de vidro e eletrodo de trabalho de carbono vítreo. Finalmente, a terceira parte desse trabalho apresenta o uso das propriedades magnéticas e eletrocatalíticas de nanofios de níquel no desenvolvimento de um detector adaptativo magneticamente modulável para eletroforese em microdispositivos.
Title in English
New technologies for the fabrication of microluidic devices with electrochemical detection
Keywords in English
analytical chemistry
microfluidic devices
Abstract in English
The development of microfluidic analytical systems has witnessed an explosive growth during the last 15 years. Particular attention has been given to microchip electrophoresis because of their fast and efficient separation capabilities. Electrochemistry detection offers considerable promise for such microfluidic systems, with features that include remarkable sensitivity, inherent miniaturization and portability, low cost, and high compatibility with microfabrication technologies. This thesis shows the development of new fabrication technologies for miniaturized analytical systems with electrochemical detection and it is presented in four chapters, Chapter I shows an introductory view of the main aspects related to miniaturization of analytical systems and amperometric detection configurations commonly coupled to microchip electrophoresis. In Chapter II, the use of elastomeric polyurethane (PU), derived from castor oil (CO) biosource, as a new material for fabrication of microfluidic devices by rapid prototyping is presented. Including the irreversible sealing step, PU microchips were fabricated in less than 1 h by casting PU resin directly on the positive high-relief molds fabricated by standard photolithography and nickel electrodeposition. Physical characterization of microchannels was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. Polymer surface was characterized using contact angle measurements and the results showed that the hydrophilicity of the PU surface increases after oxygen plasma treatment. The polymer surface demonstrated the capability of generating an electroosmotic flow (EOF) of 2.6 × 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 at pH 7 in the cathode direction, which was characterized by current monitoring method at different pH values. The compatibility of PU with a wide range of solvents and electrolytes was tested by determining its degree of swelling over a 24 h period of contact. The performance of microfluidic systems fabricated using this new material was evaluated by fabricating miniaturized capillary electrophoresis systems. We used catecholamines as model analytes that were separated in aqueous solutions and detected with end-channel amperometric detection. In Chapter III, a method based on microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Yellow AB, Red 2G, Sunset Yellow, Ponceu 4R, and Amaranth which are azo-dyes frequently added to foodstuffs. Factors affecting both separation and detection processes were examined and optimized, with best performance achieved by using a 10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 11) as running buffer and applying a voltage of 2500 V both in the separation and in the electrokinetic injection (duration 4 s). Under these optimal conditions, the target dye analytes could be separated and detected within 300 s by applying a detection potential of -1,0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) to the glassy carbon (GC) working electrode. The recorded peaks were characterized by a good repeatability (RSD = 1,8 - 3,2%), high sensitivity, and a wide linear range. Detection limits of 3.8, 3.4, 3.6, 9.1, 15.1 ?M were obtained for Yellow AB, Red 2G, Sunset Yellow, Ponceu 4R, and Amaranth, respectively. Fast, sensitive, and selective response makes the new microchip protocol very attractive for the quantitative analysis of commercial soft drinks and candies Finally, in Chapter IV, we demonstrate for the first time the use of adaptive functional nickel nanowires for switching on demand operation of microfluidic devices. Controlled reversible magnetic positioning and orientation of these nanowires at the microchannel outlet offers modulation of the detection and separation processes, respectively. The former facilitates switching between active and passive detection states to allow the microchip to be periodically activated to perform a measurement and reset it to the passive ("off") state between measurements. Fine magnetic tuning of the separation process (post channel broadening of the analyte zone) is achieved by reversibly modulating the nanowire orientation (i.e., detector alignment) at the channel outlet. The concept can be extended to other microchip functions and stimuli-responsive materials and holds great promise for regulating the operation of microfluidic devices in reaction to specific needs or unforeseen scenarios.
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