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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.74.2021.tde-22022022-082809
Document
Author
Full name
Marluci Palazzolli da Silva
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Pirassununga, 2021
Supervisor
Committee
Favaro-Trindade, Carmen Silvia (President)
Petrus, Rodrigo Rodrigues
Pimentel, Tatiana Colombo
Saad, Susana Marta Isay
Santos, Líbia Diniz
Tosi, Milena Martelli
Title in English
Delivery systems for simultaneous intake of probiotics and plant extracts
Keywords in English
Carotenoids
Complex coacervation
Guaraná
Jabuticaba
Peanut butter
Phenolics
Vacuum biosorption
Yogurt
Abstract in English
The association of plant extracts and probiotics is promising for simultaneous delivery of functional compounds in the gut, providing numerous benefits to the host. This study presented as overall aims (i) to assess the prebiotic potential and antioxidant activity of guaraná extracts; (ii) to co-encapsulate probiotics and guaraná extracts by complex coacervation and evaluate the stability and release in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (SGF); (iii) to incorporate microcapsules loaded simultaneously with probiotic and guaraná seed extract (GSE) and the same ingredients in free form in yogurt drink; (iv) to elaborate peanut butter containing free and co-encapsulated probiotic and guraná peel extract (GPE); (v) to evaluate strains with probiotic potential as carries for vacuum biosorption of plant extracts and evaluate the protection of phenolic compounds, probiotic viability, and release of phenolics in SGF; (vi) to verify the survivability of probiotic cell loaded with plant extracts in SGF. GSE and GPE showed antioxidant and prebiotic potential. In this way, co-encapsulation improved the survival of probiotics in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and during storage. In addition, approximately 60% of phenolic compounds from GSE were released into the gastric fluid. In contrast, the carotenoids present in GPE were gradually released, reaching an accumulative release rate of 90% after the addition of simulated intestinal fluid. Regarding the production of functional yogurt, the microcapsules simultaneously loaded with probiotics and GSE masked the bitter taste and avoided post-acidification of the product. Peanut butter protected both free and encapsulated probiotics, and the product added with free GPE showed lower acceptance by the tasters. In the final stage of this study, a novel technique based on vacuum biosorption was evaluated to bind phenolic compounds from jabuticaba peel extract (JPE) and GSE into potential probiotic strains. Although probiotic cells loaded between 5 to 9 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent - GAE/g, which were values significantly lower than those found in microparticles, the biosorption of plant extracts in probiotics increased the hydrophobicity of the cells by at least 3-fold. Furthermore, the release of phenolic compounds bound in cells ranged between 55% and 75% in simulated gastrointestinal fluids, while the counts of probiotics loaded with plant extracts were maintained. Overall, microencapsulation by complex coacervation allowed the delivery of probiotics and bioactive compounds from guaraná extracts to develop fortified yogurt drink and peanut butter, maintaining the quality and sensory parameters of these products. Vacuum biosorption is a promising technology for delivering viable probiotics loaded with JPE and GSE in the gut, excluding the need to use biopolymers to protect the probiotics.
Title in Portuguese
Sistemas de entrega para ingestão simultânea de probióticos e extratos vegetais
Keywords in Portuguese
Biossorção à vácuo
Carotenóides
Coacervação complexa
Fenólicos
Guaraná
Iogurte
Jabuticaba
Pasta de amendoim
Abstract in Portuguese
A associação de extratos de plantas e probióticos é promissora para entrega simultânea de compostos funcionais no intestino trazendo inúmeros benefícios ao hospedeiro. Esse estudo teve por objetivos gerais (i) avaliar o potencial prebiótico e atividade antioxidante dos extratos do guaraná; (ii) co-encapsular probióticos e extratos do guaraná por coacervação complexa e avaliar a estabilidade e liberação desses materiais em fluidos gastrointestinais simulados (FGS); (iii) incorporar as microcápsulas contendo probiótico e extrato da semente do guaraná (ESG) e os mesmos ingredientes na forma livre em iogurte líquido; (iv) elaborar pasta de amendoim contendo probiótico e extrato da casca do guaraná (ECG) na forma livre e co-encapsulada; (v) avaliar cepas com potencial probiótico como carreadores para a biossorção à vácuo de extratos de plantas e avaliar a proteção dos compostos fenólicos, viabilidade do probiótico e liberação dos compostos fenólicos em FGS; (vi) verificar a sobrevivência dos probióticos biosorvidos com extratos de plantas em FGS. ESG e ECG apresentaram potencial antioxidante e prebiótico. Dessa maneira, a co-encapsulação melhorou a sobrevivência dos probióticos em fluidos gastrointestinais simulados e durante a estocagem. Aproximadamente 60% dos compostos fenólicos do ESG foram liberados no fluido gástrico. Por outro lado, os carotenoides presentes no ECG foram liberados gradualmente, alcançando uma taxa de liberação acumulada de 90% após a adição do fluido intestinal simulado. Em relação à produção do iogurte funcional, as microcápsulas contendo simultaneamente os probióticos e ESG mascararam o gosto amargo e evitaram a pós-acidificação do produto. A pasta de amendoim protegeu tanto os probióticos livres e encapsulados, sendo que o produto adicionado de ECG livre apresentou menor aceitação dos provadores. Na etapa final desse estudo, uma nova técnica baseada na biossorção à vácuo foi avaliada para carregar os compostos fenólicos dos extratos da casca da jabuticaba (ECJ) e ESG em cepas com potencial probiótico. Apesar das células dos probióticos carregarem entre 5 a 9 mg Ácido Gálico Equivalente - AGE/g, que são valores significativamente menores aos encontrados em micropartículas, a biossorção dos extratos das plantas em probióticos aumentou a hidrofobicidade das células em pelo menos três vezes. Além disso, em ensaio gastrointestinal simulado, a liberação dos compostos fenólicos biossorvidos variou entre 55% e 75%, enquanto que as contagens dos probióticos carregados com extratos das plantas foram mantidas. De maneira geral, a microencapsulação por coacervação complexa permitiu a veiculação de probióticos e compostos bioativos dos extratos do guaraná para elaboração de iogurte líquido e pasta de amendoim fortificados, além de manter os parâmetros de qualidade e sensoriais desses produtos. Já a técnica de biossorção à vácuo demonstrou-se bastante promissora para veicular probióticos viáveis carregados com ECJ e ESG no intestino, excluindo a necessidade de utilização de biopolímeros para proteção dos probióticos.
 
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DO5883165COR.pdf (3.88 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2022-02-22
 
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