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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.71.2010.tde-23062010-160307
Document
Author
Full name
Flávio Rizzi Calippo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2010
Supervisor
Committee
Scatamacchia, Maria Cristina Mineiro (President)
Afonso, Marisa Coutinho
Oliveira, Maria Cristina Tenorio de
Rambelli, Gilson
Toledo, Felipe Antonio de Lima
Title in Portuguese
Sociedade sambaquieira, comunidades marítimas
Keywords in Portuguese
Arqueologia marítima
Composição isotópica
Modelo preditivo
Processos formativos
Sambaquis
Sambaquis submersos
Abstract in Portuguese
Tendo como referencial teórico abordagens focadas na Arqueologia Marítima (MUCKELROY, 1978; ADAMS, 1998, 2002), na Antropologia Marítima (MALINOWSKI, 1986 [1922]; DIEGUES, 1998) e em estudos de Percepção Ambiental (INGOLD, 2000), buscou-se desenvolver e testar a hipótese de que, embora houvesse uma unidade cultural que permitisse o estabelecimento de uma ampla sociedade sambaquieira, os povos dos sambaquis estariam organizados em comunidades costeiras regionais, as quais teriam se desenvolvido e se organizado em diferentes comunidades marítimas, costeiras e fluviais, em conseqüência dos diferentes modos com que eles se relacionariam (dialeticamente) com o ambiente. Para sustentar tal hipótese foi elaborado um modelo de predição de sítios submersos e realizadas análises da composição isotópica do estrôncio (HÖLZL, 1997; PRICE et al., 2000; BENTLEY et al, 2003; HODELL, 2004), do carbono e do oxigênio (KEITH, 1964; COSTA, 2000; MIZUTA, 2007) presentes (em amostras de conchas e ossos humanos) em sambaquis localizados ao longo do médio e baixo Vale do Ribeira, bem como em sítios do litoral central (Baixada Santista e Bertioga) e norte do estado de São Paulo (Ubatuba). Essas evidências foram correlacionadas à abordagem teórica através de uma proposta elaborada a partir do estudo dos processos de formação do registro arqueológico desenvolvidos por Schiffer (1972). Com base nessas análises, além de diferenciar os povos do médio Ribeira dos sambaquieiros do litoral, foi possível, entre outras, propor uma fronteira cultural entre os conjuntos de sítios do litoral sul/centro do estado de São Paulo e os sambaquis do litoral norte de São Paulo/sul do Rio de Janeiro. Especificamente em relação aos sambaquis de Cananéia, a análise isotópica das conchas evidenciou, ainda, que os locais e os propósitos da coleta estariam mais relacionados a aspectos culturais do que à simples exploração dos recursos mais abundantes.
Title in English
Sambaquieira Society, Maritime Comunities
Keywords in English
Formative processes
Isotopic composition
Maritime Archaeology
Predictive model
Shellmounds
Underwater shellmounds
Abstract in English
Using as theoretical reference approaches focused on the Maritime Archaeology (MUCKELROY, 1978; ADAMS, 1998, 2002), on the Maritime Anthropology (MALINOWSKI, 1986 [1922]; DIEGUES, 1998) and on studies of Environmental Perception (INGOLD, 2000), we tried to develop and test the hypothesis that, notwithstanding the evidence of a cultural unity that allowed for the establishment of an ample shellmound society, people of the shellmounds were organized in regional coastal communities. These would have developed and organized in different maritime communities, both coastal and fluvial, in consequence of the different ways in which they (dialectically) related with the environment. To support such hypothesis a model was elaborated predicting underwater sites, an analyses was realized of the isotopic composition of strontium (HÖLZL, 1997; PRICE et al., 2000; BENTLEY et al, 2003; HODELL, 2004), of carbon and of oxygen (KEITH, 1964; COSTA, 2000; MIZUTA, 2007) present (in samples of shells and human bones) in shellmounds located along the medium and low Vale do Ribeira, as well as in sites at the central coast (Baixada Santista and Bertioga) and north (Ubatuba) of the state of São Paulo. The evidences were correlated to the theoretical approach through a proposal elaborated from the study of the formation processes of the archaeological record developed by Schiffer (1972). Based on these analyses, beyond differentiating the people from the medium Ribeira from the coastal shellmound people, it became possible, among other things, to propose a cultural borderline between the ensembles of sites of the south/center coast of São Paulo and the shellmounds of northern São Paulo and southern Rio de Janeiro. Specifically with regard to the shellmounds of Cananéia, the isotopic analysis of shells evinced, yet, that the locals and goals of collecting were more related to cultural aspects than to the simple exploration of the more abundant resources.
 
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Publishing Date
2010-10-04
 
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