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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.7.2020.tde-16122019-134938
Document
Author
Full name
Sheyla Mara Silva de Oliveira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2019
Supervisor
Committee
Bertolozzi, Maria Rita (President)
Bertani, Rogério
Nichiata, Lucia Yasuko Izumi
Torrez, Pasesa Pascuala Quispe
Title in Portuguese
Escorpionismo no interior da Amazônia: geoespacialização e aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos
Keywords in Portuguese
Enfermagem
Epidemiologia
Georreferenciamento
Manifestações Clínicas
Picadas de Escorpião
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: No Oeste do Pará os acidentes escorpiônicos evidenciam um quadro diverso das demais regiões do país, com manifestações neurológicas singulares, que acometem indistintamente todas as idades. Objetivo: Analisar a distribuição espacial e os aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos dos acidentes escorpiônicos no 9º e 10º Centro Regional de Saúde do Estado do Pará. Método: Trata-se de pesquisa observacional, descritiva, retrospectiva e prospectiva, com abordagem quantitativa, realizada em duas etapas. A primeira etapa teve delineamento retrospectivo e baseou-se em fichas de notificação dos municípios pertencentes ao 9º e 10º Centro Regional de Saúde, no período de 2011 a 2015, e prontuários de pacientes atendidos no Hospital Municipal de Santarém (HMS), em 2016. A segunda etapa, prospectiva, foi realizada por meio de pesquisa de campo junto aos indivíduos acometidos pelo agravo, no período de março a setembro de 2017. Testes estatísticos viabilizaram a análise descritiva e inferencial, além de realizar-se análise espacial. Resultados: Entre 2011 a 2015 foram notificados 6.997 casos de escorpionismo na região, sendo o último ano o que apresentou maior incidência, com 1.470 (21,0%) casos. O estudo prospectivo acompanhou 259 vítimas de escorpionismo em 18 municípios da região, uma vez que os municípios de Curuá e Faro não registraram casos. O perfil das pessoas acometidas revela maior concentração de casos na faixa etária entre 16 a 30 anos (29,0%), sexo masculino (69,0%), agricultores (34,0%), com renda até um salário mínimo (61,0%) e ensino fundamental incompleto (58,0%). A zona rural foi a área de maior ocorrência de casos (78%), principalmente ocorridos durante atividades laborais (42,0%). Os dados evidenciam vulnerabilidade individual e social dos indivíduos acometidos. Também verificou-se que, para a maior parcela dos casos, o intervalo de tempo entre a picada e a assistência foi de 1 a 3 horas (36,3%). As mãos (52,0%) foram os locais mais acometidos. As manifestações locais mais comuns foram: dor (99,0%), sensação de choque elétrico (51,0%) e parestesia (50,0%). As manifestações sistêmicas prevalentes reuniram sensação de choque elétrico (57,1%), formigamento (52,1%) e ataxia de marcha (34,3%). As manifestações neuromusculares duraram em média 24 horas. Houve diferença entre o tempo de atendimento levando em consideração a gravidade do caso. As espécies T. obscurus, T. strandi, T. silvestris foram as responsáveis pelos acidentes na região. A análise espacial revelou que 12 municípios apresentaram alto risco para o agravo. A maioria dos acidentes acompanhados foram classificados como leves (56,4%). Todos os pacientes evoluíram favoravelmente. Conclusão: O estudo apresenta importante achado, ao constatar que outras espécies de Tityus também foram responsáveis pelos acidentes que evidenciaram manifestações neuromusculares, com destaque para a sensação de choque elétrico. O estudo também contribui para que os profissionais de saúde reconheçam as características dos sinais e sintomas compatíveis com o agravo. A identificação do risco para o agravo, nos vários municípios em que ocorreu o estudo, demonstra a necessidade de que a população seja instrumentalizada a respeito de práticas de prevenção, destacando-se que o escorpionismo, na região em que ocorreu o estudo, acomete os grupos com maior vulnerabilidade individual e social.
Title in English
Scorpion envenomation in Amazon: Geospatialization and clinical-epidemiological aspects
Keywords in English
Clinical manifestations
Epidemiology
Georeferencing
Nursing
Scorpion stings
Abstract in English
Introduction: The accidents with scorpion envenomation in the West region of Pará evidence a diverse clinical picture of the other regions of Brazil with singular neurological manifestations affecting indiscriminately all ages. Objectives: Analyze the spatial distribution and clinical and epidemiological aspects of accidents with scorpions in the 9th and 10th Regional Health Center of the state of Pará, Brazil. Method: This is an observational, descriptive, retrospective and prospective research with a quantitative approach, held in two stages. The first stage had a retrospective design and was based on notification forms from the municipalities within the 9th and 10th Regionals of Health in the years 2011 to 2015 and on medical records of scorpion envenomation patients attended at Santarém City Hospital in 2016. The second stage was prospective and was a field research carried out with individuals affected by this accident from March through September 2017. In addition to a spatial analysis, statistical tests were applied making it possible to achieve a descriptive and inferential analysis. Results: During the period of 2011 and 2015, 6,997 cases of scorpion envenomation were reported in the region studied. The last year (2015) of the period presented highest incidence with 1,470 (21.0%) cases. The prospective study followed 259 victims of scorpion envenomation in 18 of the 20 municipalities in the region studied, once the municipalities of Curuá and Faro did not report any cases. The profile of the people affected shows a higher concentration of cases in the age group between 16 and 30 years (29,0%), males (69.0%), farmers (34.0%), with income up to one minimum wage (61.0%), and incomplete elementary school (58.0%). The rural area had the higher occurrence of cases (78%), mainly during labor activities (42.0%). Data demonstrate individual and social vulnerability of the affected individuals. It was also found that for the most of the cases the time between the sting accident and medical assistance was of 1 to 3 hours (36.3%). Hands (52.0%) were the most affected sites. The most common local symptoms were: pain (99.0%), sensation of electric shock (51.0%) and paresthesia (50.0%). The prevalent systemic signs were a sensation of electric shock (57.1%), tingling (52.1%) and gait ataxia (34.3%). The neuromuscular manifestations of the victims lasted on average 24 hours. Happened Difference between the time of attendance taking into account the severity of the case. It was demonstrated the relation between the time elapsed till medical assistance and the consequent aggravation of the case. The accidents were caused by the species T. obscurus, T. strandi, T. silvestris in the region studied. The spatial analysis revealed that twelve municipalities have a high risk for the aggravation. Most of the accidents followed were classified as light (56.4%). All patients evolved favorably. Conclusion: The study presents an important finding, pointing that other species of Tityus were also responsible for the accidents that evidenced neuromuscular manifestations, featured the sensation of electric shock. The study also helps health professionals to recognize the signs and symptoms compatible with the aggravation. The identification of the risk to the aggravation, in the various municipalities in which the study occurred, demonstrates the need for the population to be instrumentalized regarding prevention practices, highlighting that the scorpion envenomation, in the region where the study occurred, affects the groups with greater individual and social vulnerability.
 
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Publishing Date
2020-01-09
 
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