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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.7.2011.tde-21062011-152352
Document
Author
Full name
Luana Prado Figueredo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2011
Supervisor
Committee
Miyadahira, Ana Maria Kazue (President)
Ciosak, Suely Itsuko
Sancinetti, Tania Regina
Title in Portuguese
Complicações da Terapia Nutricional Enteral (TNE) e fatores associados em pacientes hospitalizados
Keywords in Portuguese
Alimentação enteral
Complicações
Intubação gastrointestinal
Pacientes internados
Abstract in Portuguese
Trata-se de um estudo observacional, retrospectivo, cujo objetivo foi descrever o perfil dos pacientes e características da Terapia Nutricional Enteral (TNE) bem como analisar as complicações dessa terapia e os fatores associados em pacientes adultos hospitalizados. O estudo constituiu-se de uma amostra de 214 pacientes internados, no período de 2008 e 2009, em um hospital universitário do Município de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados dos prontuários e das fichas de avaliação nutricional, em um formulário elaborado para o estudo. Os resultados permitiram verificar que: 1 a-) em relação ao perfil dos pacientes e terapia nutricional enteral, houve predominância do sexo masculino (55,6%), com média de idade de 64,8 anos; internados em unidades de semi-intensiva e UTI (66,8%). b-) Referente à terapia nutricional enteral, a média de dias de nutrição enteral foi de 13,2 dias, e 43,5% dos pacientes receberam-na em até uma semana. Quanto à via de acesso enteral, predominaram as sondas nasoenterais (96,3%) e o método de administração contínuo da dieta (67,3%). 2-) em relação às complicações da TNE e os eventos observados - dos 214 pacientes da amostra, em 200 deles houve complicações durante o uso da nutrição enteral. Verificou-se a ocorrência de complicações: gastrointestinal (90,5%), metabólica (55,0%), mecânica (41,5%) e pulmonar (13,0%). Os eventos observados mais frequentes da complicação gastrointestinal foram: distensão abdominal (33,4%), constipação (17,5%) e alto volume residual gástrico (14,6%). Na complicação metabólica, o evento observado foi hiperglicemia (55,0%), com valor médio de 174,2 mg/dL. Os eventos observados predominantes da complicação mecânica foram: saída não programada da sonda enteral (70,5%), seguida de obstrução da sonda enteral (19,0%). Na complicação pulmonar, a aspiração pulmonar (13,0%) foi o evento observado. 5-) Quanto ao método de infusão houve associação significativa da infusão contínua com os seguintes eventos observados na complicação gastrointestinal: alto VRG (p=0,000), constipação (p=0,010), distensão abdominal (p=0,037). Na complicação mecânica, houve associação significativa com a infusão intermitente nos seguintes eventos: saída não programada da sonda enteral (p=0,005) e deslocamento da sonda enteral (p=0,040). 6-) Quanto à terapia medicamentosa, houve associação significativa da complicação metabólica (hiperglicemia) e o uso de sedativos/opioides (p=0,000) e drogas vasoativas (p=0,000). Este estudo demonstrou que as complicações coexistentes com a TNE são muito prevalentes nesta população (93,5%). Além disso, verificou-se que existe elevada ocorrência de eventos observados (617), sendo as complicações (400) que apresentaram intersecções significativas com outras variáveis acima descritas. Portanto, investigações das condições clínicas, as terapêuticas e os cuidados no uso da sonda enteral devem ser reiteradamente indicadas, sobretudo para os enfermeiros que são responsáveis pela administração e monitoramento da nutrição enteral.
Title in English
Complications of Enteral Nutrition Therapy (ENT) and associated factors in hospitalized patients
Keywords in English
Complications
Enteral nutrition
Inpatients
Intubation gastrointestinal
Abstract in English
This observational and retrospective study aimed to describe the profile of patients and the characteristics of the Enteral Nutrition Therapy (ENT), as well as to analyze the complications of this therapy and the associated factors in hospitalized adult patients. The study consisted of a sample of 214 patients, hospitalized between 2008 and 2009 at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo. Data were collected from medical records and of nutritional assessment sheets, using a form developed for the study. Results showed that: 1 a-) in relation to patient profiles and enteral nutrition therapy participants were predominantly male (55.6%), with an average age of 64.8 years, hospitalized in semi-intensive and intensive care units (66.8%); b-) Concerning enteral nutrition therapy, the average days of enteral nutrition was 13.2 days, and 43.5% of the patients received it for up to one week. As for the route of enteral access, nasoenteric feeding tube (96.3%) and continuous feeding administration (67.3%) were the most common. 2 -) regarding the complications of ENT and the observed events of the 214 patients of the sample, 200 had complications during the use of enteral nutrition. There was occurrence of gastrointestinal (90.5%), metabolic (55.0%), mechanical (41.5%) and pulmonary (13.0%) complications. The most frequently observed events among gastrointestinal complication were: abdominal distention (33.4%), constipation (17.5%) and high gastric residual volume (GRV) (14.6%). Among the metabolic complication, hyperglycemia (55.0%) was observed, with average of 174.2 mg/dL. The predominant events resulting from mechanical complication were unexpected withdrawal of enteral feeding tube (70.5%), followed by obstruction of enteral feeding tube (19.0%). As for pulmonary complication, pulmonary aspiration (13.0%) was the observed event. 5-) Concerning the method of infusion, there was significant association of continuous infusion with the following events observed in gastrointestinal complication: high GRV (p=0.000), constipation (p=0.010) and abdominal distension (p=0.037). Among the mechanical complication, there was significant association with intermittent infusion at the following events: unexpected withdrawal of enteral feeding tube (p=0.005) and displacement of enteral feeding tube (p=0.040). 6-) Regarding drug therapy, there was significant association of metabolic complication (hyperglycemia) and use of sedatives/opioids (p=0.000) and vasoactive drugs (p=0.000). This study evidenced that complications concomitant with ENT are very prevalent in this population (93.5%). Moreover, it was found that there is a high occurrence of observed events (617), with complications (400) presenting significant intersections with other variables described above. Therefore, research on the clinical conditions, treatments and care to the use of enteral feeding tubes should be constantly indicated, particularly for nurses who are responsible for the administration and monitoring of enteral nutrition.
 
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Luana_Prado.pdf (1.04 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2011-06-22
 
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