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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.7.2005.tde-15012007-165049
Document
Author
Full name
Marisa Aparecida Amaro Malvestio
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2005
Supervisor
Committee
Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso de (President)
Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa
Padilha, Katia Grillo
Poggetti, Renato Sergio
Steinman, Milton
Title in Portuguese
Predeterminantes de sobrevivência em vítimas de acidentes de trânsito submetidas a atendimento pré-hospitalar de suporte avançado à vida
Keywords in Portuguese
Acidentes de trânsito
Enfermagem no trauma
Modelos de riscos proporcionais
Abstract in Portuguese
O Atendimento Pré Hospitalar (APH) é um importante recurso no atendimento à vítimas de trauma. No entanto, há muitas dificuldades para demonstrar o efeito benéfico das intervenções do APH na sobrevivência das vítimas, sobretudo as de suporte avançado à vida (SAV). A proposta deste estudo é caracterizar as vítimas de acidentes trânsito, com Revised Trauma Score (RTS) <11, atendidas pelo SAV municipal e encaminhadas a hospitais terciários em São Paulo, além de identificar as variáveis da fase pré-hospitalar associadas à sobrevivência e avaliar o valor predeterminante dessas variáveis sobre o resultado obtido pelas vítimas. As variáveis avaliadas foram: sexo, idade, mecanismos do acidente, procedimentos de suporte básico e SAV realizados, repercussão fisiológica do trauma na cena do acidente, (considerando o RTS , seus parâmetros e flutuações), o tempo consumido no APH, gravidade do trauma segundo o Injury Severity Score (ISS),a Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) e número de lesões para cada segmento corporal. Os resultados obtidos por 175 vítimas entre 12 e 65 anos, foram submetidos a ”Análise de Sobrevivência de Kaplan Meier” e ao “Modelo de Riscos Proporcionais de Cox”. A variável dependente foi o tempo de sobrevivência após o acidente, considerando os intervalos até 6h,12h, 24h, 48h, até 7 dias e até o término da internação. Os homens (86,9%) e a faixa etária de 20 a 29 anos (36,0%) foram as mais freqüentes. Os atropelamentos (45,1%) e o envolvimento de motocicletas e seus ocupantes (30,9%) foram os destaques dentre os mecanismos de trauma. A média do RTS na cena e do ISS, foram respectivamente 8,8 e 19,4.Os segmentos corpóreos mais atingidos foram: cabeça (58,8%), membros inferiores (45,1%) e superfície externa (40%). A média de tempo consumido na fase de APH foi 41min (tempo de cena 20,2min). Ocorreram 36% de óbitos, (metade em até 6 horas). A análise estatística revelou 24 fatores associados à sobrevivência, dentre eles, os procedimentos respiratórios avançados e os circulatórios básicos, as variáveis relativas ao RTS e a gravidade (ISS, MAIS e o número de lesões). No modelo final de Cox, ter sido submetido a procedimentos respiratórios avançados, compressões torácicas, apresentar lesão abdominal e ISS>25, foi associado a maior risco para o óbito até 48h após o trauma. Até 7 dias, a compressão torácica não se manteve no modelo final e a PAS de zero a 75mmHg apresentou associação com a morte após o acidente. Até a alta hospitalar, a ausência de PAS na avaliação inicial permaneceu no modelo. A reposição de volume foi o único fator com valor protetor para o risco de óbito presente em todos os momentos
Title in English
Survival determinant factors in motor vehicle crash victms submitted to prehospital advanced life support
Keywords in English
Motor vehicle crash
Proportional hazards model
Trauma nursing
Abstract in English
The prehospital care (PH) is an important resource to trauma victims’ care. Nevertheless, there is great difficulty in demonstrating the PH intervention’s positive effect in victim’s survival, especially when concerning the advanced life support (ALS). The aim of this study is to characterize motor vehicle crash victims with Revised Trauma Score (RTS) <11 cared by municipal ALS and moved to tertiary hospitals in São Paulo in addition to identifying the prehospital variables associated to survival, and to evaluate their values as victim survival outcome determinant. The variables evaluated were: sex, age, trauma mechanism, basic life support and ALS procedures, physiological measures in the accident scene (considering the RTS, its parameters and fluctuations), the time consumed in PH phase, trauma severity by Injury Severity Score (ISS), the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) and number of lesions in each body region. The main results obtained by 175 victims between 12 e 65 years of age were submitted to the Kaplan Meier Survival Analysis and to Cox Proportional hazards Regression Analysis. The dependent variable was the survival time after the motor vehicle accident considering the intervals up to 6,12,24 and 48hs , up to 7 days and until the time of hospital discharge. Men (86,9%) and the 20 to 29 aged group (36%) were the most frequent. The pedestrians struck by car (45,1%) and the motorcycles (and their riders) (30,9%)were the highlight in trauma mechanisms. The RTS and the ISS average were 8,8 and 19,4 respectively. The more damaged body regions were head (58,8%), lower limbs (45,1%) and external surface (40%).The prehospital time average was 41 min (scene time 20,2min).Death rate was 36% (half of which up to 6hs).The statistical analysis revealed 24 survival associated factors. The ALS and the circulatory basic procedures, the RTS variables and the trauma severity (ISS,MAIS and number of lesions) were within them. In the final Cox Model were associated to higher risk of death up to 48hs after trauma: the submission to ALS respiratory procedures, chest compressions, the presence of abdominal injuries and ISS>25 .Until the 7th day the chest compression was not sustained in a final model and the systolic blood pressure (SBP) from zero to 75mmHg revealed statistical association with death after trauma. Until hospital discharge the SBP absence in scene evaluation remained in the model. The prehospital intravenous fluid refilling was the only factor of protector value to death risk in all moments
 
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Publishing Date
2007-01-16
 
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