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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.7.2005.tde-20102006-113009
Document
Author
Full name
Priscila Maria Colacioppo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2005
Supervisor
Committee
Riesco, Maria Luiza Gonzalez (President)
Osava, Ruth Hitomi
Ymayo, Marcos Roberto
Title in Portuguese
Anestesia local no reparo do trauma perineal no parto normal: estudo comparativo da eficácia da solução anestésica com e sem vasoconstritor.
Keywords in Portuguese
Anestesia local
Enfermagem Obstétrica
Método duplo-cego
Parto
Períneo
Sutura
Abstract in Portuguese
No parto normal, o trauma provocado por episiotomia ou roturas, é freqüente e a anestesia local é bastante utilizada no reparo das lesões da região vulvoperineal. Na literatura especializada, os estudos sobre as soluções anestésicas mais adequadas são escassos para essa anestesia. No entanto existem recomendações para a adoção de anestésicos com vasoconstritor pela permanência mais prolongada da solução anestésica no local, garantindo maior ação e redução da concentração plasmática da droga, mas na prática seu uso é restrito. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a quantidade de anestésico necessária para inibir a dor durante a sutura do trauma perineal, em mulheres com episiotomia ou laceração espontânea de primeiro ou segundo graus, conforme o uso ou não de vasoconstritor na solução anestésica. Trata-se de uma pesquisa aleatorizada e controlada com mascaramento duplo, realizada no Centro de Parto Normal do Amparo Maternal na cidade de São Paulo. Foram incluídas 96 parturientes, alocadas em três blocos - laceração de primeiro grau, laceração de segundo grau e episiotomia. Em cada bloco, constituído por 32 mulheres, 16 receberam solução anestésica com vasoconstritor e 16 sem vasoconstritor. Os resultados mostraram que, na laceração de primeiro grau, a média de anestésico com vasoconstritor apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante (p=0,002), com 1,0 ml (I.C. -1,6; -0,4) menos que a média do anestésico sem vasoconstritor; em 95% dos casos, foram usados de 1 a 2 ml de solução com vasoconstritor, e em 87,5% dos casos para o anestésico sem vasoconstritor, o volume usado variou de 2 a 4 ml. Para a laceração de segundo grau, a média do anestésico com vasoconstritor foi 3,7 ml (I.C. -5,8; -1,6) menos que a média do anestésico sem vasoconstritor, sendo estatisticamente significante (p=0,001); em 87,5% dos casos, a quantidade máxima de anestésico com vasoconstritor administrada foi 6 ml, e 81,3% das mulheres que receberam anestésico sem vasoconstritor, a dose administrada foi de 7 ml ou mais. Considerando a extensão da laceração, adotou-se o tamanho da episiotomia praticada nas mulheres do estudo, como parâmetro para classificar a extensão da laceração. Foram agrupadas como pequenas as lacerações de menor extensão, como médias aquelas com tamanho semelhante à episiotomia e como grandes aquelas cuja extensão superou o tamanho da episiotomia. Para a episiotomia, a média de anestésico com vasoconstritor foi 0,3 ml (I.C. -2,1; 1,5) a menos que a média do anestésico sem vasoconstritor, considerada sem significância estatística (p=0,724). Os resultados permitiram confirmar a hipótese de que uso de anestésico com vasoconstritor na anestesia local para a sutura de lacerações perineais no parto normal aumenta a eficácia da anestesia local. Embora o volume de anestésico utilizado na sutura de laceração de primeiro e segundo graus seja significativamente reduzido pela associação com vasoconstritor, a relevância clínica desse resultado deve ser considerada.
Title in English
The use of local anesthesia in repairing the perineal trauma from spontaneous delivery: a comparative study on the effectiveness of the anesthetic solution with and without vasoconstrictors.
Keywords in English
Delivery
Double blind trial
Local anesthesia
Nurse midwifery
Perineum
Suture
Abstract in English
The perineal trauma, caused by episiotomy or ruptures, is quite frequent during the spontaneous delivery, being the local anesthesia widely utilized when repairing lesions in the vulvo-perineal region. Throughout the specialized literature, scarce are the studies on the most suitable anesthetic solutions for this kind of anesthesia. Even though there are recommendations for the adoption of the anesthetic with vasoconstrictor, because of the prolonged permanence of the anesthetic solution in the region, thus ensuring a bigger time of action, and because of the reduction in the plasmatic concentration of the drug, its utilization in practice is restricted. The goal of the study was to compare the necessary quantity of anesthetic to inhibit pain during the suture of the perineal trauma in women with an episiotomy or with first or second degree spontaneous lacerations, according to the use or not of vasoconstrictor in the anesthetic solution. This is a randomized and controlled research, with double blind trial, performed in the Birth Centre at Amparo Maternal, in the city of Sao Paulo. There were 96 parturients included in the study and then divided into three blocks: first degree laceration, second degree laceration and episiotomy. In each block, constituted of 32 women, 16 women were administered the anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor and 16 with no vasoconstrictor. Results show that in the first degree laceration block the average of anesthetic with vasoconstrictor presented a statistically significant difference (p=0,002), with 1,0 ml (C.I. -1,6; -0,4) less than the average of the anesthetic without vasoconstrictor; in 95% of the cases, 1 to 2 ml of the solution with vasoconstrictor was utilized, while in 87,5% of the cases, the anesthetic without vasoconstrictor varied from 2 to 4 ml. In the second degree laceration block, the average of anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor was 3,7 ml (C.I. -5,8; -1,6) less than the average of the anesthetic without vasoconstrictor, being statistically significant (p=0,001); in 87,5% of the cases, the maximum quantity of anesthetic with vasoconstrictor administered was 6 ml, while in 81,3% of the cases, women who were given the anesthetic without vasoconstrictor, received 7 ml or more. Considering the extent of the laceration, the size of the episiotomy practiced on the women of the study was adopted as a parameter to classify the extent of the laceration. The lacerations of a smaller extent were grouped as small-sized, the ones in which the size was similar to the size of the episiotomy were grouped as medium-sized, and as large-sized the ones that oversized the episiotomy. For the episiotomy, the average of anesthetic with vasoconstrictor was 0,3 ml (C.I. -2,1; 1,5) less than the average of the anesthetic without vasoconstrictor, with no statistic significance (p=0,724). Results allow us to confirm the hypothesis that the utilization of the anesthetic with vasoconstrictor in the local anesthesia during the suture of the perineal lacerations in the spontaneous delivery increases the effectiveness of the local anesthesia. Although the volume of anesthetic utilized in the suture of the first and second degree lacerations is significantly reduced by the association with vasoconstrictor, the clinical relevance of this result must be taken into further consideration.
 
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Publishing Date
2006-11-17
 
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