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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.7.2007.tde-20062007-092759
Document
Author
Full name
Suzete de Fatima Ferraz Bergamaschi
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2007
Supervisor
Committee
Praça, Neide de Souza (President)
Silva, Isilia Aparecida
Silva, Lucia Cristina Florentino Pereira da
Title in Portuguese
A vivência da puérpera-adolescente com o recém-nascido, no domicílio
Keywords in Portuguese
Alojamento conjunto
Enfermagem obstétrica
Mães adolescentes
Recém-nascido (cuidado)
Relações familiares
Abstract in Portuguese
Este estudo qualitativo foi motivado pela carência de pesquisas com enfoque na maternidade na adolescência e no período puerperal. Teve como objetivo compreender a vivência da puérpera-adolescente sobre o cuidado do recém-nascido, em domicílio. Adotou-se o conceito de Maternidade como referencial de análise e o método do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC) no tratamento dos dados. O projeto foi aprovado pela Comissão de Ensino e Pesquisa, e pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do Hospital Universitário da USP. Participaram do estudo 15 puérperas-adolescentes, primíparas, que ficaram internadas na unidade de Alojamento Conjunto do HU-USP, juntamente com o recém-nascido. Os dados foram coletados em 2006, por meio de entrevista realizada com as puérperas após o mínimo de 30 e o máximo de 40 dias, no domicílio. As respostas da questão aberta, “conte-me como está sendo em casa com seu bebê ?” possibilitaram a elaboração de 17 DSC apresentados em dois blocos, segundo os temas centrais que emergiram: “cuidados do recém-nascido” e “contexto sociocultural das puérperas-adolescentes”. Em relação ao primeiro bloco, os discursos mostraram uma construção diária do ser mãe-adolescente e o desejo da puérpera pela maternidade e pela maternagem, pois assumiam integralmente as tarefas de mãe-cuidadora. A princípio considerada de difícil adaptação, a maternidade gerou na jovem a necessidade de aprender a conviver com as abdicações e ambivalências inerentes ao novo status. O suporte familiar, as orientações recebidas na unidade de Alojamento Conjunto e a experiência anterior no cuidado de recém-nascidos favoreceram a adaptação à maternidade e a superação de suas limitações iniciais. Quanto ao segundo bloco (contexto sociocultural), os dados mostraram a expressão de vivências e de mudanças nas relações sociais, com abandono de projetos de vida imediatos e de atividades de lazer. Verificou-se, ainda, que a puérpera-adolescente vivencia o cuidado do recém-nascido com erros e acertos, e, a cada dia, constrói o próprio modelo de ser mãe, vencendo medos e dificuldades, e despertando para sua capacidade de atender às necessidades de higiene, de alimentação e de afeto do recém-nascido. Diante dos dados, creio que o profissional deve repensar como abordar essas jovens mães nas unidades de saúde, priorizando o atendimento de situações geradoras de conflitos no cuidado do bebê e na relação com familiares. Além disso, deve estar disponível para compartilhar e possibilitar o esclarecimento de suas dúvidas de modo a facilitar a superação de dificuldades. Portanto, oferecer-lhe a chance de uma vivência da maternidade-adolescente com base em cuidados construídos diariamente, com superação
Title in English
The adolescent mother´s experience with the newborn, at home
Keywords in English
Adolescent mother
Family relation
Newborn care
Obstetrical nursing
Rooming-in
Abstract in English
This is a qualitative study that was motivated by the lack of researches related to the maternity during the adolescence and the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to understand the adolescent mother’s experience while taking care of the newborn at home. The maternity concept was adopted as the referential for the analysis. For the data treatment the Collective Subject’s Speech was adopted. The project was approved by the Research Committee and also by the Ethic Committee of the School Hospital of University of São Paulo. Fifteen adolescent mothers participated in the research. They were all mothers for the first time and they stayed together with their babies in the rooming-in of the School Hospital of University of São Paulo. The data were collected in 2006 by interviews done with the mothers after the minimum of 30 days and the maximum of 40 days they were in their houses. The answers given to the open question: “Tell me what it is like to be home with your baby”, made possible to elaborate 17 Collective Subject’s Speeches that were presented in two parts, according to the following central themes that emerged: “taking care of the newborn” and “social and cultural contexts of the adolescent mothers”. In the first part, the speeches showed that everyday, the women were building their role as adolescent mothers as well as their desire for the maternity and care. They totally assumed the tasks related to the caregiver mother. In the beginning, the adolescent mothers considered they had difficult in adapting to the maternity, which forced them to learn how to live with the abdication and ambivalences related to their new status. The support from the family, the orientation given in the hospital and the previous experience taking care of newborns helped the adolescent mother to be adapted to the maternity and also to overcome the first limitations. In the second part of the speeches (social and cultural contexts), the data showed experiences and changes related to their social lives as putting behind some immediate life projects as well as their leisure activities. It was also verified that the adolescent mother experiences the care of the newborn by making the right and wrong things and each day she builds her own model of a mother, overcoming her fears and difficulties. This process makes her understand her capacity to fulfill the newborn’s needs concerning hygiene, feeding and affection. According to the findings, I believe the professional should rethink the way the care is given to these young mothers in the health units and give priority to the situation of conflict in the care of the baby and in the relationship with the members of the family. The professional should also be available to share and clear their doubts in order to make easier for them to overcome their difficulties and give them the opportunity to experience an adolescent maternity based on everyday care built with triumph
 
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Publishing Date
2007-07-06
 
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