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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.64.2006.tde-21102008-160503
Document
Author
Full name
Mario Almir Feres Junior
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Reis, Boaventura Freire dos (President)
Fatibello Filho, Orlando
Kamogawa, Marcos Yassuo
Rocha, Fabio Rodrigo Piovezani
Silva, José Alberto Fracassi da
Title in Portuguese
Desenvolvimento de um fotômetro portátil e de procedimentos analíticos automáticos para determinação de ânions e cátions em fontes de captação de águas para uso doméstico e industrial
Keywords in Portuguese
Águas
Análise por injeção em fluxo
Ânions
Automação
Cátions
LED
Multicomutação
Abstract in Portuguese
Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido equipamento portátil e procedimentos analíticos automáticos para determinação de cátions e anions em águas usadas para consumo humano e suprimento. Os procedimentos foram baseados no processo de multicomutação em fluxo e detecção fotométrica empregando fotômetro feito no laboratório. Os sistemas de fluxo foram construídos empregando válvulas solenóide, com interface independente de comutação acionadas por computador usando apenas um canal de bombeamento. O sistema proposto foi controlado por um computador rodando um software escrito em QuickBasic 4.5. Os dói fotômetros baseados em LED foram desenvolvidos usando como detectores de radiação foto-transistores e foto-diodos. Nos dois casos a fonte de radiação (LED) e o foto-detector foram acoplados a cela de fluxo obtendo assim, uma unidade compacta. O fotômetro foi projetado para usar um foto-transistor para determinações seqüenciais de nitrato, nitrito, ferro(II), ferro(III) em águas de rios.O fotômetro proposto usa um foto-diodo para determinação de cloreto por turbidimetria, fosfato e amonium por fotometria. A sistema de fluxo foi desenhado associando-se os processos de multicomutação e multisite garantindo redução de reagente e de efluente. O sistema sistema foi empregado para determinação de cloreto, fosfato e amônio em águas de rios. Os dois sistemas propostos apresentaram excelente performance incluindo boa precisão, freqüência analítica e baixo consumo de reagente. Além disso, o sistema baseado em multisite apresentou baixo volume de efluente gerado. As dimensões reduzidas de ambos os fotômetros e do modulo de analise em fluxo, permitiram a portabilidade, o que possibilita sua aplicação em condições de campo.
Title in English
Development of portable photometer and automatic analytical procedures for anions and cations determination in sources of water captation for domestic and industrial uses
Keywords in English
Anions
Automation
Cations
Flow injection analysis
LED
Multicommutation
Waters
Abstract in English
In this work it was developed a portable apparatus and automatic analytical procedures for the determination of cations and anions in waters used for human consumption and industrial provisioning. The procedures were based on the multicommutation process in flow analysis and detection was performed using a homemade photometer. The flow systems were designed employing a set of solenoid valves, which were assembled to work as independent commutation units, thus under computer control several solutions were handled using a single pumping channel. The proposed system was controlled by computer running a software wrote in QuickBasic 4.5. The two LED based photometers were developed using as light detection a phototransistor and a photodiode. In both cases, the radiation source (LED) and the photodector were coupled to the flow cell in order to obtain compact unit. The photometer designed using a phototransistor was employed for the sequential determination of nitrate, nitrite, iron(II) and iron(III) in river water. The photometer designed using a photodiode was employed in the system used for the determination of chloride by turbidimetry, phosphate and ammonium by photometry. The flow system was designed associating the multisite and multicommutation process intending reduction of the reagent consumption and waste generation. The useful of the system was proved performing the determination of chloride, ammonium and phosphate in river water. The two proposed systems presented very overall performance including precision and accuracy, analytical frequency and low reagent consumption. Furthermore, the system based on multisite approach presented a very low volume of waster generation. The reduced dimensions of both photometer and flow system module allow their portability, thus we can suggest that the proposed systems are reliable for work in field condition.
 
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Errata.PDF (20.42 Kbytes)
TESE.pdf (1.09 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2008-10-24
 
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