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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.64.2009.tde-18122009-103434
Document
Author
Full name
Ana Carolina Ribeiro Granja
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Abreu Junior, Cassio Hamilton (President)
Moraes, Roberto Machado de
Oliveira, Fernando Carvalho
Title in Portuguese
Elementos potencialmente tóxicos em caldo de cana-de-açúcar cultivada em solo tratado com lodo de esgoto
Keywords in Portuguese
Espectrometria de massas
Impactos ambientais
Metais pesados
Resíduos Sólidos
Abstract in Portuguese
Não obstante aos benefícios evidentes da aplicação do lodo de esgoto na cultura da cana-deaçúcar, conforme a norma No 375 do CONAMA, há ausência de informações sobre os elementos Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Tl e V que estão presentes lodo. Estes elementos podem contaminar o solo e a planta. Todavia, eles têm sido muito pouco avaliados, principalmente pelos baixos teores no solo e na planta, assim como pela baixa sensibilidade das técnicas convencionais de análise. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de lodo de esgoto na cana-planta sobre os teores de Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Tl e V no caldo. Foram aplicadas quatro doses de lodo (0; 3,6; 7,2 e 10,8 t ha-1, base seca) em experimento de campo, com cana-planta. Para obtenção do caldo de cana, os colmos foram colhidos, após 12 meses de cultivo da cana, e prensados. Inicialmente, verificou-se a viabilidade da decomposição assistida por radiação micro-ondas, utilizando-se de 5 mL de amostras de caldo, com ácido nítrico e ácido clorídrico concentrado. Este procedimento mostrou-se inadequado, pois a pressão interna gerada no tubo reacional foi superior ao limite máximo de 3.500 kPa (35 bar), com temperatura na faixa de 140oC, gerando extrato com material orgânico residual. Em novo teste, utilizando-se de 2,5 mL de amostras de caldo, com ácido nítrico, ácido clorídrico concentrados e peróxido de hidrogênio, obteve-se sucesso na decomposição da amostra, pois a pressão interna gerada no tubo reacional foi inferior ao limite máximo de 3.500 kPa (35 bar), com temperatura na faixa de 185oC, gerando extrato límpido, sem material orgânico residual. A partir de digeridos obtidos com o segundo protocolo, os teores Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Tl e V foram determinados por espectrometria de massa com plasma (ICP-MS). Os teores Be, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Tl e V no caldo de cana-de-açúcar não foram alterados pela aplicação do lodo de esgoto, cujos valores variaram de 1,1 a 36,4 'mü'g kg-1. Na dose 10,8 t ha-1, os teores de Cr e Pb no caldo foram menores e os de Cd, maiores, em relação às demais doses de lodo. Todos os teores observados foram muito abaixo dos limites máximos permitidos em alimentos, exceto o Tl, que foi o elemento que, independentemente da dose de lodo, mais limitou o consumo do caldo, em 0,6 kg dia
Title in English
Potencial toxic elements in sugarcane juice cultivated in soil treated with sewadge sludge
Keywords in English
Environmental impacts
Heavy metal
Mass spectrometry
Sewage sludge
Abstract in English
Despite the obvious benefits of sludge application in the sugarcane crop, as the CONAMA no 375 resolution, there is a lack of information about Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Tl and V elements present in the sewage sludge, which can contaminate soil and plant. However, they have been poorly evaluated, especially by the low contents in soil and plant, as the low sensitivity of conventional techniques. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the sewage sludge application on the cane-plant, on the Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Tl and V contents in the juice. Four sewage sludge doses were applied (0, 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 t ha-1, dry basis) in Field experiment with cane-plant. To obtain the sugarcane juice, the stalks were harvested after 12 months of sugarcane cultivation, and pressed. Initially, there was the feasibility of decomposition assisted by microwave radiation, using 5 mL juice samples, with nitric acid and concentrated hydrochloric acid. This procedure was inadequate because the internal pressure generated in the reaction tube was above the limit of 3,500 kPa (35 bar), with temperatures from 140 o C, leading to extract with residual organic material.In a new test, using 2.5-mL samples of juice, with nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and concentrated hydrogen peroxide, were successful in decomposing the sample, because the internal pressure generated in the reaction tube was below the limit maximum of 3500 kPa (35 bar), with temperatures in the range of 1850C, generating clear extract, without residual organic material. From digested obtained with the second protocol, the concentration of Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Tl and V were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The Be, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Tl and V concentration in sugarcane juice were not affected by the application of sewage sludge, with values ranging from to 1.1 a 36.4 'mü'g kg-1. In dose 10.8 t ha-1, the Cr and Pd concentration in the juice were lower and Cd contents were higher compared to other doses of sludge. All concentration observed were below the maximum allowed levels in food, except for Tl, which was the element that, regardless of sludge dose, limited the consumption of juice, at 0.6 kg day-1
 
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Errata_AnaCarolina.pdf (29.88 Kbytes)
Publishing Date
2009-12-18
 
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