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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/T.64.2021.tde-05082021-172124
Document
Author
Full name
Pedro Lopes Garcia
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2021
Supervisor
Committee
Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze (President)
Cantarella, Heitor
Otto, Rafael
Silva, Douglas Ramos Guelfi
Title in English
Nitrogen (15N) use efficiency for fertilization managements of maize and common bean using mixtures of polymer-sulfur coated urea and conventional urea
Keywords in English
15N isotope
Controlled-release fertilizer
Fertilizer recovery
NBPT-treated urea
Phaseolus vulgaris L
Zea mays L.
Abstract in English
Nitrogen (N) is the most demanded nutrient by maize (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) being necessary in small quantities at the beginning and at appropriate times and quantities during the growth cycle of these crops. It is desired that blends of polymer-sulfur coated urea (PSCU) and urea (U) treated with NBPT (N- (n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide) meet the need for N of these crops with a single N application at sowing. In order to accurately recommend these blends in the current cropping systems, it is necessary to know the 15N-fertilizer recovery by plants of each N source in the blend, as well as the N dynamics in the soil - plant - atmosphere system. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the 15N recovery from PSCU and/or U by plants, the ammonia volatilization from N-fertilizers applied on the soil surface, the macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S) uptake by plants, as well as the soil mineral N content, and grain yield. The 15N-fertilizer recovery and ammonia volatilization were evaluated in one growing season and the other analyses in two growing seasons for each crop. The experiments were conducted in a Rhodic Eutrustox soil (clayey texture), with straw on the soil surface, during the 2017-2018 and 2019-2020 maize growing seasons, and the common bean during the 2018 and 2019 irrigated growing seasons. Two blends (70% PSCU + 30% U and 30% PSCU + 70% U) were applied in three ways (incorporated application at sowing; broadcast application at sowing; and split application). The N rate was 180 kg ha-1 (maize) and 90 kg ha-1 (common bean). Control treatment (without N-fertilizer) was included. In 2019-2020, PSCU was the main N-fertilizer supplier in maize at V4 (fourth-leaf) applying 70% PSCU + 30% U, and both blends provided 73.8% of N recovery at the physiological maturity (47.9% in the grain). There was not difference in yield (12.1 Mg ha-1) and macronutrient (N, K, S, Ca and Mg) uptake among treatments in 2019-2020. In 2017-2018, 70% PSCU + 30% U provided higher yield (8.3 Mg ha-1), and the broadcast application provided higher total N and K uptake than split application and control. In the common bean, more than 50% of N from U was recovered from the blends, and the broadcast application provided lower N recovery in the grain than split and incorporated applications in 2019. In addition, the broadcast application provided lower yield (3.3 Mg ha-1) than split application and control (3.6 Mg ha-1) in the average of years. There was no difference in macronutrient uptake by common bean in both years (except N). The unrecovered N by maize and common bean can be attributed to the ammonia volatilization (~12% of the applied N), and the likely N percolation below the root zone. Based on the results, it is possible to recommend the most cost-effective treatment for maize, and opt for split or incorporated application in the common bean with the less expensive blend in the soil of the experiments
Title in Portuguese
Eficiência de uso de nitrogênio (15N) em manejos de adubação de milho e feijão com o uso de misturas de ureia revestida com enxofre e polímero e ureia convencional
Keywords in Portuguese
Fertilizante de liberação controlada
Isótopo 15N
Phaseolus vulgaris L
Recuperação do fertilizante
Ureia tratada com NBPT
Zea mays L.
Abstract in Portuguese
O nitrogênio (N) é o nutriente mais exigido pelo milho (Zea mays L.) e feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), sendo necessário o seu fornecimento em menor quantidade no início e em momentos e quantidades adequadas durante o desenvolvimento dessas culturas. É desejado que misturas de ureia (U) tratada com NBPT (N-(n-butil) triamida tiofosfórica) e ureia revestida com enxofre e polímero (PSCU) supram a necessidade de N dessas culturas com uma única aplicação na semeadura. Para recomendar de forma precisa essas misturas nos atuais sistemas de cultivo é necessário conhecer quanto as plantas recuperam de N das fontes da mistura, bem como a dinâmica de N no sistema solo - planta - atmosfera. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a recuperação de 15N do PSCU e/ou do U pelas plantas, a volatilização de amônia do N-fertilizante aplicado na superfície do solo, o acúmulo de N e dos outros macronutrientes (P, K, Ca, Mg e S) pelas plantas, bem como o N mineral no solo durante o ciclo, e a produtividade de grãos. A recuperação de 15N-fertilizante e a volatilização foram avaliados em uma safra e o restante em duas, em cada cultura. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos nas safras de milho 2017/18 e 2019/20 e nas de feijão de inverno irrigado em 2018 e 2019 em um Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico de textura argilosa, manejado com palha na superfície. Duas misturas (70% PSCU + 30% U e 30% PSCU + 70% U) foram aplicadas de três maneiras (incorporado na semeadura; superfície na semeadura; e parcelado), com dose de N de 180 kg ha-1 (milho) e 90 kg ha-1 (feijão). Tratamento controle (sem N-fertilizante) foi incluído. Na safra 2019/20, PSCU foi o principal fornecedor de N-fertilizante no milho em V4 (quarta folha), aplicando 70% PSCU + 30%U, e as duas misturas garantiram 73,8% de recuperação de N na maturidade fisiológica (47,9% nos grãos). Não houve diferença de produtividade (12,1 Mg ha-1) e de acúmulo total de N, K, S, Ca e Mg entre os tratamentos (safra 2019/20). Na safra 2017/18, 70% PSCU + 30% U apresentou maior produtividade (8,3 Mg ha-1), e a aplicação em superfície maior acúmulo total de N e K comparado com a parcelada e o controle. No feijão, mais de 50% do N proveniente do U foi recuperado das misturas, a aplicação em superfície recuperou menos N do U nos grãos comparado com a parcelada e a incorporada em 2019, e produziu menos (3,3 Mg ha-1) que a parcelada e o controle (3,6 Mg ha-1) na média dos anos. Não houve diferença de acúmulo total dos macronutrientes em 2018 e 2019 (exceto N). O N não recuperado, no milho e no feijão, pode ser atribuído a volatilização de amônia (~12% do N aplicado) e o possível movimento vertical do N no solo abaixo da zona radicular (percolação). Baseado nos resultados, é possível recomendar o tratamento menos oneroso para o milho e optar pelo parcelamento ou incorporação com a mistura menos onerosa no feijão no solo do experimento
 
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Publishing Date
2021-08-12
 
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