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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.64.2008.tde-03122009-154619
Document
Author
Full name
Juliana Camargo Martinati
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Piracicaba, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Mui, Tsai Siu (President)
Gallo, Luiz Antonio
Guerreiro Filho, Oliveiro
Guzzo, Sylvia Dias
Muraoka, Takashi
Title in Portuguese
Aspectos bioquímicos em plantas de cafeeiro tratadas com silício
Keywords in Portuguese
Cafeeiro
Ferrugem
Silício
Abstract in Portuguese
A maioria das plantas consegue defender-se contra infecções fúngicas por meios naturais, que podem ser induzidos por uma série de elicitores bióticos ou abióticos. O silício (Si) solúvel tem mostrado que é capaz de induzir resistência em várias espécies de plantas contra inúmeros patógenos. Neste trabalho foi proposta a avaliação dos compostos contento Si na redução dos sintomas da ferrugem causada pelo fungo biotrófico Hemileia vastatrix em plantas de cafeeiros suscetíveis bem como avaliar os parâmetros bioquímicos envolvidos nos processos de resistência. Primeiramente, foram estudadas duas fontes de Si (silicato de Ca/Mg e silicato de potássio) em cinco doses para padronizar uma dose/fonte para os experimentos futuros. Foi possível observar que as plantas de cafeeiros não tiveram diferença significativa nos parâmetros de desenvolvimento como altura das plantas, área foliar, número de folhas para nenhuma das fontes e doses analisadas. Porém quando se tratava da contagem do número de lesões por cm2, a fonte silicato de potássio na dose de 5mM conseguiu suprimir em até 60% o desenvolvimento das lesões causadas pelo fungo. Com a fonte e dose estabelecidas, o segundo passo do trabalho foi avaliar quais os processos bioquímicos envolvidos na resistência conferida pelo Si em plantas de cafeeiro. Foram analisadas as atividades das enzimas relacionadas ao estresse oxidativo (peroxidases guaiacol e ascorbato, catalases, e superóxido desmutases) e relacionadas à defesa (glucanase, quitinase e PAL). As folhas foram coletadas para a obtenção do extrato protéico em diferentes intervalos de tempo após a inoculação com o fungo: as 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas após a inoculação e como controle foi utilizado o tempo zero (sem inoculação). Nesta fase foi possível observar que a atividade das enzimas CAT, SOD, APX foi maior em plantas tratadas indicando que o Si parece estimular uma resposta mais rápida ao estresse oxidativo. O mesmo ocorreu com as enzimas relacionadas à defesa. A partir destes resultados podemos afirmar que o Si estimula uma resposta de defesa mais rápida em plantas de café suscetíveis à ferrugem quando inoculadas com o fungo patogênico
Title in English
Biochemical features in coffee plants treated with silicon
Keywords in English
Coffee plants
Leaf rust
Silicon
Abstract in English
Most plants can defend themselves against fungal infections by natural means, which can be induced by a number of biotic and abiotic elicitors. Soluble silicon (Si) has been shown to induce resistance in a number of plant species against several pathogens. The objective of this work was to assess the influence of silicon application of symptoms caused by the biotrophic fungus Hemileia vastatrix in susceptible coffee plants and evaluate the biochemistry process involved in defense mechanism. First of all, were studied two Si sources (Ca/Mg silicate and potassium silicate) in five doses to standardize dose/source for the future experiments. The statistical analysis showed that no difference was observed in relation to plant height, leaf area and number of leaves. However, the number of lesions reduced 60% in the higher silicon dose when compared to the number of lesions in control plants. Infected plants were found to have a linear decrease of lesions with the increase of silicate concentration. The lowest number of lesions per leaf area was observed in plants that received 5 M of Si from potassium silicate. This result indicates the use of silicon as an alternative for an ecological management system for coffee disease protection. The second step of this work was to evaluate the biochemistry process involved in resistance induced by Si in susceptible coffee plants. The activity of the enzymes related to oxidative stress (peroxidases, catalase, and superoxide desmutase) and related to defense (glucanase, chitinase, PAL) was evaluated. The leaves were collected in different time intervals after the fungus inoculation (24, 48, 72 e 96 hours after the fungus inoculation) in order to obtain the protein extract. It was possible to observe that the activity of CAT, SOD and APX was higher in Si-treated coffee plants suggesting that Si could stimulate a faster response to oxidative stress. The same situation occurred to the defense related enzymes. By the results obtained here it is possible to verify that Si can stimulate a faster defense response in susceptible coffee plants when inoculated with coffee leaf rust fungus
 
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ErrataJCMartinati.pdf (10.18 Kbytes)
TeseJCMartinati.pdf (1.05 Mbytes)
Publishing Date
2009-12-10
 
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