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Master's Dissertation
Full name
Rodrigo Barboza Nunes
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Bauru, 2021
Tonello, Cristiano (President)
Alonso, Nivaldo
Machado, Luciano Brandão
Souza, Leandro Franco de
Title in English
Three-dimensional analysis and airflow simulation using computational fluid dynamics of the upper airways in Treacher-Collins syndrome
Abstract in English
Introduction: Treacher-Collins syndrome is often associated with upper airway obstruction and respiratory impairment. Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the upper airways of patients with the syndrome in three dimensions and to analyze the respiratory dynamics through simulations with computational fluid dynamics. Methods: The sample consisted of 14 cone beam computed tomographies from the HRAC-USP file; 6 male and 8 female, aged 6-20 years. The tomographic data were exported in DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) to the software MIMICS 21.0 (Materialisms Software Interactive Medical Image Control System) and realistic models of the upper airways were generated and analyzed. Then, the models were exported as stereolithography (STL) files to the ANSYS worbench and simulations were performed using the FLUENT solver. Results: The minimum sectional area of the oropharynx presents values between 10.72-201.44 mm2. The angles formed between the nasal cavity / nasopharynx and the oropharynx vary between 107.65 º-153.56º. The volume of the nasal cavity varies between 5360.68-13582.96 mm3, the volume of nasopharynx between 179.06-3845.89 mm3 and the volume of the oropharynx between 3338.18-20137.16 mm3. The distance between the angle of the jaw and the location of the minimum sectional area varies between +10.52 mm and -18.10 mm. The fluid dynamics simulation revealed areas of increased air velocity and dynamic pressure in the oropharynx, great differences between the flow of the nostrils in most fluid dynamics analyzes performed, an important area of constriction in the nasopharynx in one case and oral breathing tendency in another analysis. Conclusion: Data from volumetry and computational fluid dynamics suggest that in Treacher-Collins syndrome is common the reduction in volume and obstruction of the nasal cavity/nasopharynx, which can induce the patient to mouth breathing and contribute to the collapse of the airways and worsening of facial deformities.
Title in Portuguese
Análise tridimensional e simulação do fluxo de ar por meio de fluidodinâmica computacional das vias aéreas superiores na síndrome de Treacher-Collins
Keywords in Portuguese
Colapsibilidade da via aérea
Fluidodinâmica computacional
Obstrução na via aérea superior
Síndrome de Treacher-Collins
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: A síndrome de Treacher-Collins frequentemente está associada a obstrução da via aérea superior e comprometimento respiratório. Objetivos: O objetivo do estudo é avaliar tridimensionalmente as vias aéreas superiores de pacientes com a síndrome e analisar a dinâmica respiratória através de simulações com fluidodinâmica computacional. Métodos: A amostra consistiu em 14 tomografias computadorizadas de feixe cônico provenientes do arquivo do HRAC-USP; sendo 6 do sexo masculino e 8 do sexo feminino, com idades entre 6-20 anos. Os dados tomográficos foram exportados em DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) para o software MIMICS 21.0 (Materialisms Software Interactive Medical Image Control System) e foram gerados e analisados os modelos realistas das vias aéreas superiores. Em seguida, os modelos foram exportados como arquivos de estereolitografia (STL) para o worbench ANSYS e realizadas simulações através do solucionador FLUENT. Resultados: A área seccional mínima da orofaringe apresenta valores entre 10,72-201,44 mm2. Os ângulos formados entre a cavidade nasal/nasofaringe e a orofaringe variam entre 107,65 º-153,56º. O volume da cavidade nasal varia entre 5360.68-13582.96 mm3, o volume da nasofaringe entre 179.06- 3845.89 mm3 e o volume da orofaringe entre 3338.18-20137.16 mm3. A distância entre o ângulo da mandíbula e a localização da área seccional mínima varia entre +10.52 mm e -18.10 mm. A simulação fluidodinâmica revelou áreas de aumento da velocidade do ar e pressão dinâmica na orofaringe, grandes diferenças entre os fluxos das narinas na maioria das análises, importante área de constrição na nasofaringe em um caso e tendência a respiração oral em outra análise. Conclusão: Dados de volumetria e fluidodinâmica computacional sugerem que na síndrome de TreacherCollins é comum a redução do volume e obstrução da cavidade nasal e nasofaringe, o que pode induzir o paciente à respiração oral e contribuir para o colapso das vias aéreas e agravamento das deformidades faciais.
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