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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.60.2012.tde-29032012-133056
Document
Author
Full name
Simone Vieira Pereira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2012
Supervisor
Committee
Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro de (President)
Antonietto, Kamilla Swiech
Cunha Junior, Armando da Silva
Title in Portuguese
Obtenção de dispersões sólidas microparticuladas de piroxicam por spray congealing
Keywords in Portuguese
Análise térmica
Antiinflamatório
Solubilidade
Spray congealing
Ultrassom
Abstract in Portuguese
O piroxicam (PRX) e um antiinflamatorio nao esteroidal com propriedades analgesicas, antiinflamatorias e antipireticas pertencente a classe II do SCB. Farmacos desta classe apresentam como etapa limitante da sua absorcao a sua dissolucao, uma vez que possuem baixa solubilidade e alta permeabilidade. Assim, o aumento da solubilidade e da taxa de dissolucao do PRX promoveria um aumento da absorcao e biodisponibilidade deste farmaco. Varias tecnicas tem sido utilizadas para aumentar a solubilidade de farmacos pouco soluveis. Dentre estas a dispersao solida, e uma das mais eficazes. Apesar de existirem varios metodos para o preparo de dispersoes solidas, o spray congealing e uma tecnica muito vantajosa que vem cada vez mais ganhando atencao. O objetivo do presente estudo foi produzir e avaliar dispersoes solidas de PRX utilizando diferentes carreadores, a fim de escolher aquela que, alem de aumentar a solubilidade deste farmaco, fosse a mais adequada para a producao de microparticulas de PRX por spray congealing. As dispersoes solidas foram produzidas pelo metodo da fusao, na presenca e ausencia de um sonicador/misturador ultrassonico. Para avaliar a influencia da mistura ultrassonica na solubilidade do PRX foi utilizado um planejamento fatorial completo onde as variaveis estudadas foram o tempo e a potencia da soniccao. Foram produzidas dispersoes solidas contendo 10, 15 e 20% (m/m) de PRX utilizando diferentes carreadores. Todas as dispersoes solidas promoveram um aumento significativo na solubilidade do PRX em relacao ao farmaco puro. A dispersao solida de PRX:PEG 4000:Poloxamer 407 (1:8:1) sonicada por 10 minutos e 475 W de potencia foi a escolhida para a producao das microparticulas por spray congealing, pois apresentou uma solubilidade 4 vezes maior que a do PRX puro, alem de ter mostrado uma taxa de dissolucao maior e mais rapida que o farmaco puro. As microparticulas produzidas por spray congealing foram obtidas utilizando um planejamento fatorial Box-Benhken, onde as variaveis estudadas foram: temperatura da dispersao de PRX no carreador, porcentagem de Poloxamer 407 presente na amostra e vazao de atomizacao da dispersao. As analises de difracao de raios-X, termogravimetria, calorimetria exploratoria diferencial e infravermelho das amostras mostraram que nao houve degradacao do farmaco durante o processo e que a temperatura e a sonicacao da dispersao durante sua producao, possivelmente promovem a formacao da forma II do PRX alem uma maior interacao entre o PRX e os carreadores. As microparticulas apresentaram forma irregular, diametro medio de 72,365 a 120,628 ?Êm, fluxo de excelente a moderado, teor de farmaco entre 77,5 e 99,2 % e solubilidade 2,5 a 5,4 vezes maior que o PRX puro. As analises estatisticas mostraram que as variaveis estudadas pelo planejamento fatorial Box-Behnken aplicado no spray congealing. influenciaram no Indice de Carr, Fator de Hausner e solubilidade destas microparticulas, mas nao exerceram influencia sobre o angulo de repouso, teor de farmaco e diametro medio das mesmas. Os perfis de dissolucao obtidos para as microparticulas mostraram um aumento na velocidade e na taxa de dissolucao do PRX quando comparado com o farmaco puro e as misturas fisicas e dispersoes solidas do mesmo. Diante desses resultados pode-se concluir que a tecnica de spray congealing apresentou resultados muito bons, sendo uma tecnica eficiente, rapida e muito promissora para a preparacao de dispersoes solidas microparticuladas que visam o aumento da solubilidade e dissolucao de farmacos pouco soluveis.
Title in English
Preparation of piroxicam microparticulated solid dispersions by spray congealing
Keywords in English
Anti-inflammatory
Solubility
Spray congealing
Thermal analysis
Ultrasound
Abstract in English
Piroxicam (PRX) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that presents low solubility but high permeability. When administered orally, drugs of this nature have their absorption limited by their dissolution. By increasing the solubility of PRX it is possible to increase its bioavailability. Several techniques have been proposed to increase the solubility of lowsolubility drugs. Among these techniques, solid dispersions have been the most successful. There are several ways to make solid dispersions. Spray congealing has gained attention as a very advantageous method for fabricating solid dispersions. The current work was aimed at producing and characterizing PRX solid dispersions made by spray congealing. In order to do this, several candidates for forming the melt for spray congealing were studied. Solid dispersions made using the fusion method to analyze the effect on the solubility of PRX. The influence of the use of an ultrasonic probe was also studied on the solubility of PRX was also studied. The mixture PRX, PEG 4000 and Poloxamer 407 in a ratio of 1:8:1 was chosen to use with the spray congealing method. It was also determined that the use of a 500W ultrasonic mixer at 95% of capacity during 10 minutes had positive results on the solubility of PRX. The resulting solid dispersions using the ultrasonic mixer had a solubility 4 times greater than pure PRX. Micro-particles of the PRX:PEG 4000:Poloxamer 407 melt were fabricated varying the dispersion temperature, Poloxamer 407 content and melt flow. The influence of the variables was studied using a Box-Benhken factorial design. X-Ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared analysis of the samples were used to show that the fabrication process, including ultrasonic mixture, do not degrade the drug. The process does, however, promote the formation of a second form of PRX and a higher interaction between the drug and the polymers. The resulting micro-particles had irregular shapes and average diameter from 72 to 120 ìm. They also presented moderate to excellent flowability, drug content between 77.5 to 99.2% and an increase in solubility between 2.5 and 5.4 times when compared to pure PRX. Statistical analysis shows that the variables analyzed using the Box-Behnken factorial design had a statistically significant influence over the Carr index and the Hausner ratio as well as over the solubility of the micro-particles. The variables, however, had no effect over the angle of repose, drug content and average particle diameter. The measured dissolution profiles show an increase in the speed and ratio of dissolution of PRX when compared to the pure drug, physical mixtures and solid dispersions made by the fusion method. From these results one can conclude that spray congealing is a fast, efficient and promising technique for the fabrication of micro-particulate solid dispersions that aim to increase solubility and dissolution of a low-solubility drug.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-04-23
 
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