• JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
 
  Bookmark and Share
 
 
Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.6.2017.tde-19062017-135838
Document
Author
Full name
Eurídice Martínez Steele
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2017
Supervisor
Committee
Monteiro, Carlos Augusto (President)
Duncan, Bruce Bartholow
Jaime, Patrícia Constante
Levy, Renata Bertazzi
Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza
Title in Portuguese
Alimentos ultraprocessados e a qualidade nutricional das dietas dos EUA
Keywords in Portuguese
Análise de Componentes Principais
Fitoestrógenos
Macronutrientes
Micronutrientes
NHANES
Padrões Nutricionais
Perfil Nutricional
Protein Leverage Hypothesis
Qualidade da Dieta
Ultraprocessados
US
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: A introdução da agricultura e pecuária foram muito recentes para que o genoma humano se adaptasse e a tecnologia avançada pós revolução Industrial foi ainda mais. Segundo Cordain, a substituição de alimentos minimamente processados por alimentos pós-agrícolas e pós-industriais influenciaram os indicadores nutricionais: carga glicêmica, composição de ácidos graxos e macronutrientes, densidade de micronutrientes, equilíbrio ácido-base, relação sódio/potássio e teor de fibras, levando a um desequilíbrio que é causa de várias doenças atuais da civilização. A Protein Leverage Hypothesis (PLH) propõe que a queda na ingestão de proteínas possa levar a obesidade e doenças cardiometabólicas associadas. Objetivos: Estudar o efeito do consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados nos indicadores nutricionais na população dos EUA, incluindo a composição de macronutrientes, densidade de fibras e micronutrientes e fitoestrógenos urinários; avaliar se a contribuição calórica de alimentos ultraprocessados é determinante para a qualidade nutricional das dietas contemporâneas; e finalmente estudar se a associação entre o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados, proteína e energia correspondem às previsões do modelo PLH. Métodos: Foram avaliados os participantes do National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010, com pelo menos um recordatório alimentar de 24 horas. Os itens foram classificados em: alimentos in natura ou minimamente processados, processados, ultraprocessados e ingredientes de uso culinário. O manuscrito 1 examina a relação entre a contribuição calórica de alimentos ultraprocessados e qualidade nutricional da dieta, avaliando individual e globalmente a contribuição de cada ingrediente crítico, usando a análise de componentes principais (ACP). O manuscrito 2 estuda a associação entre a contribuição calórica dos alimentos ultraprocessados e consumo de açúcares de adição. O manuscrito 3 avalia como o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados influencia o conteúdo proteico relativo da dieta e as ingestões absolutas de energia e proteína, e se essas relações se encaixam nas previsões da PLH. O manuscrito 4 avalia a relação entre a contribuição calórica de alimentos ultraprocessados e níveis de fitoestrógenos urinários. Resultados: O teor médio de proteínas, fibras, vitaminas A, C, D e E, zinco, potássio, fósforo, magnésio e cálcio na dieta diminuiu ao longo dos quintis de contribuição calórica de alimentos ultraprocessados, enquanto o de carboidratos, açúcares de adição e gordura saturada aumentou. Uma associação inversa de dose-resposta foi encontrada entre o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados e qualidade nutricional total, medida através de um escore de padrão balanceado de nutrientes derivado usando ACP. Consistente com a PLH, a contribuição calórica de alimentos ultraprocessados foi inversamente associada à densidade proteica e diretamente ao consumo energético total, enquanto a ingestão absoluta de proteínas permaneceu constante com aumento do consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados. Os níveis médios de enterolignanos urinários diminuíram ao longo dos quintis de consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados, enquanto os níveis de isoflavonas permaneceram inalterados. Conclusões: Este estudo mostra que a diminuição da contribuição calórica de alimentos ultraprocessados é um meio racional e eficaz de melhorar a qualidade nutricional das dietas dos EUA
Title in English
Ultra-processed foods and the nutritional quality of US diets
Keywords in English
Diet Quality
Dietary Nutrient Profile
Dietary Patterns
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
NHANES
Phytoestrogens
Principal Component Analysis
Protein Leverage Hypothesis
Ultra-processed
US
Abstract in English
Background: The introduction of agricultural and animal husbandry has not provided the human genome time enough to adapt, much less the advancing technology after Industrial Revolution. According to Cordain et al., displacement of minimally processed foods by post-agricultural and post-industrial food items adversely affected the following dietary indicators: glycemic load, fatty acid and macronutrient compositions, micronutrient density, acid-base balance, sodium-potassium ratio and fiber content. Many current diseases of civilization, in turn may be ascribable to those unbalanced dietary indicators. Indeed, Raubenheimer and Simpson have proposed the Protein Leverage Hypothesis (PLH) to explain how a drop in dietary protein content might lead to obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease. Objective: This thesis aims to study the effect of an increased consumption of ultra-processed foods on dietary indicators in the US population, including macronutrient composition, micronutrient and fiber densities, and urinary phytoestrogens. It also explores whether the dietary share of ultra-processed foods, expressed as a percentage of total energy intake, is a meaningful determinant of overall nutritional quality of contemporary diets. Lastly, it also looks into whether the association between ultra-processed food, protein and energy consumptions fit predictions of the PLH model. Methods: Participants from cross-sectional 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with at least one 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. Food items were classified according to extent and purpose of industrial food processing as: unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods and ultra-processed foods. Manuscript 1, examines the relationship between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and nutritional quality of US diet through the evaluation of dietary contents of critical nutrients individually and also overall, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Manuscript 2 studies the association between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and energy intake from added sugars. Manuscript 3 examines how consumption of ultra-processed food influences relative dietary protein content and, absolute energy and protein intakes; it furthermore, tests whether the relationships fit PLH predictions. Manuscript 4 assesses the relationship between dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods and urinary levels of phytoestrogens. Results: The average content of protein, fiber, vitamins A, C, D and E, zinc, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium in US diet decreased significantly across quintiles of energy contribution of ultra-processed foods, while carbohydrate, added sugars and saturated fat contents increased. An inverse dose-response association was found between ultra-processed food consumption and overall dietary quality measured through a Nutrient balanced pattern PCA derived factor score. Consistent with PLH, dietary contribution of ultra-processed foods was inversely associated with protein density and directly associated with total energy intake, while absolute protein intake remained relatively constant with increases in ultra-processed food consumption. Average urinary mammal lignan levels decreased across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption, while isoflavone levels remained unchanged. Conclusions: This study suggests that decreasing the dietary share of ultra-processed foods is a rational and effective way to improve the nutritional quality of US diets
 
WARNING - Viewing this document is conditioned on your acceptance of the following terms of use:
This document is only for private use for research and teaching activities. Reproduction for commercial use is forbidden. This rights cover the whole data about this document as well as its contents. Any uses or copies of this document in whole or in part must include the author's name.
Publishing Date
2017-06-23
 
WARNING: Learn what derived works are clicking here.
All rights of the thesis/dissertation are from the authors
CeTI-SC/STI
Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations of USP. Copyright © 2001-2022. All rights reserved.