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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.6.2016.tde-27072016-141304
Document
Author
Full name
Helena Savastano
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 1981
Supervisor
Committee
Almeida, Pedro Augusto Marcondes de (President)
Qualifik, Paul
Rosenburg, Cornelio Pedroso
Siqueira, Arnaldo Augusto Franco de
Title in Portuguese
Aspectos da imagem corporal da gestante nos três trimestres da gravidez, implicações na assistência pré-natal
Keywords in Portuguese
Assistência Pré-Natal
Gestante
Imagem Corporal
Abstract in Portuguese
Foi feita uma revisão da literatura sobre gravidez, relacionada com a imagem corporal, com a obesidade e com o desenho da figura humana e também uma revisão daquela que diz respeito à procedência do método psicoprofilático na assistência pré-natal e sua tendência atual. Em seguida, em um estudo prospectivo, através de um questionário específico, caracterizou-se uma população de vinte gestantes com assistência psicoprofilática (APPN) e outra de dezoito gestantes, sem esta assistência e que são de nível sócio-econômico médio e alto. Finalmente, analisou-se o desenho da figura humana que elas fizeram nos três trimestres da gestação. O instrumento utilizado foi o Teste da Imagem Corporal da gestante (ICG). O ICG consta da técnica do desenho da figura humana de Karen Machover (desenhe uma figura e agora a do sexo oposto), acrescida da técnica de Helena Savastano (agora desenhe a senhora). Este desenho da auto-imagem possibilita à pessoa projetar a sua própria configuração em um plano da realidade presente mais consciente - a gestação. Uma das conclusões do questionário foi que, nas primigestas, o entusiasmo do casal e o apoio do marido são estímulos para que a mulher sinta-se "grávida bonita" e aprecie a sua nova estética mais do que as com mais de uma gestação. Destacam-se quatro das conclusões do teste ICG: 1º) A projeção inconsciente da figura feminina tende a se igualar, em percentual, com a projeção consciente, principalmente nos desenhos das gestantes que se submeteram ao atendimento psicoprofilático. 2º) Acrescentam-se as ansiedades das gestantes aquelas relacionadas com as modificações do esquema corporal. 3º) O segundo trimestre da gestação mostra ser o período em que se concretiza a situação de crise. 4º) O amadurecimento psicobiológico se processa no decorrer da gravidez. As gestantes com APPN vencem esta crise com menos conflitos do que as gestantes sem APPN. Sugere-se ser necessário que os Serviços de Saúde Materna tenham recursos, a fim de manterem equipes profissionais especializadas em proporcionar atendimento psicológico às gestantes, como medida de prevençao primária. Sugere-se, também, a continuação do estudo com o ICG nos três trimestres da gestação com a finalidade de pesquisa e como complemento do diagnóstico da personalidade.
Title in English
Aspects of the body image for pregnant women in the three trimesters of pregnancy: implications for prenatal care
Keywords in English
Body Image
Pregnant
Prenatal Care
Abstract in English
The literature on pregnancy related to corporal image, obesity and to the drawing of the human figure, as well as that refering to the provenance of the psychoprophylactic method in pre-natal care and its present trends, was reviewed. After that, in a prospective study undertaken by means of a specific questionnaire, a population of twenty pregnant women submitted to psychoprophylactic care and another of eighteen who were not undergoing this method were characterized. Finally, the drawing of the human figure performed by these two populations throughout the three trimesters of pregnancy was analysed. The instrument used was The Pregnant Woman's Corporal Image Test. This consists of Karen Machover's drawing of the human figure technique (draw a figure and now of the opposite sex) to which iS added Helena Savastano's one (and now draw yourself). This self-image drawing allows the person to project her own configuration in the most conscious present reality - the pregnancy. The populations thus studied were of the middle and upper socio-economic classes. One of the conclusions drawn from the questionnaire was that, in those women expecting for the first time, the couples' enthusiasm and the husbands' backing were most stimulating towards these women actually feeling pretty and enjoying their new aesthetics far more than those who had been through several pregnancies. The following were the four main conclusions drawn from The Pregnant Womants Corporal Image Test: 1st - The unconscious projection of the female figure tends to be equal, in percentage, to the conscious projection, especially in the drawings of those submitted to psychoprophylactic care. 2nd - Anxiety of the expectant mothers is added onto by further anxiety due to changes in the corporal scheme. 3rd - The second trimester proves to be the period in pregnancy where the crisis situation is established. 4th - Psychobiologic maturation is processed throughout pregnancy. The expecting mothers undergoing psychoprophylactic care overcome this crisis with less conflicts than those who are not. It is suggested that Maternal Health Services should have resources in order to maintain specialized professional teams supplying psychological care to pregnant women, as a primary prevention step. It is also suggested that further studies be undertaken as regards The Pregnant Woman's Corporal Image Test in the three trimesters of pregnancy pursuing research and as a complement to personality diagnosis.
 
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Publishing Date
2016-07-27
 
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