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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.59.2008.tde-05122012-140245
Document
Author
Full name
Ana Irene Fonseca Mendes
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
Ribeirão Preto, 2008
Supervisor
Committee
Fukusima, Sergio Sheiji (President)
Ben, Cristina Marta Del
Carvalho, Silvio Morato de
Fernandez, Jesus Landeira
Simas, Maria Lúcia Bustamante
Title in Portuguese
Caricatura e reconhecimento de faces
Keywords in Portuguese
caricatura
protótipo facial
reconhecimento de faces
Abstract in Portuguese
A caricatura, uma imagem da face baseada no exagero de suas características peculiares, geralmente é reconhecida tão bem quanto a fotografia da face sem distorções. Para confecção das caricaturas, exageram-se as diferenças entre a imagem original e um protótipo (face média de um grupo de pessoas); e para confecção das anti-caricaturas essas diferenças são atenuadas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar se existe um grau de exagero ótimo para que a caricatura represente a face melhor que a fotografia original. Além disso, investigou- se o papel da percepção holística versus percepção componencial no processo de reconhecimento de faces. Foram geradas seis faces prototípicas, masculinas e femininas, de pessoas da população da região de Ribeirão Preto que se auto-declaram branca, parda e preta. A partir das faces prototípicas, foram gerados dois tipos de caricaturas e anticaricaturas: 1. holística: em que todas as diferenças entre a face original e a prototípica foram manipuladas, 2. parcial: em que somente as diferenças de alguns elementos faciais isolados ou combinados entre a face original e a prototípica foram manipuladas. No Experimento I os estímulos teste foram as caricaturas e anti-caricaturas holísticas. No Experimento II os estímulos foram as caricaturas e anti-caricaturas parciais. Em ambos experimentos as caricaturas e anti-caricaturas foram submetidas a julgamentos de similaridade com a face original previamente memorizada. Os resultados do Experimento I indicaram que a melhor representação da face é a fotografia sem distorção e que, nos casos em que a face é atípica em relação ao protótipo, as caricaturas tendem a ser representações tão fidedignas quanto as fotografias sem distorção. Os resultados do Experimento II apontam para a importância dos elementos peculiares no reconhecimento de faces. Comparando-se os resultados dos Experimentos I e II pode-se afirmar que o processamento de faces se dá predominantemente de forma holística e que a manipulação de elementos peculiares da face reduz mais a similaridade entre a face original e a caricatura (ou anti-caricatura) que a manipulação de elementos não-peculiares.
Title in English
Caricature and face recognition
Keywords in English
caricature
face recognition
prototypical face
Abstract in English
A caricature is an exaggeration of distinctive facial features and is generally recognized just as well as an undistorted photograph of a face. Caricatures can be generated by exaggerating the differences between a face and a prototypical face (average face) and an anticaricature can be generated by reducing those differences. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a degree of caricaturing that best captures facial likeness. Moreover, we investigated the role of holistic perception versus componential perception in the facial recognition process. Six prototypical faces, three male and three female, were generated by morphing photographs of Brazilian people from the region of Ribeirão Preto-SP of different races: black, white and mixed race. Two types of caricatures and anticaricatures were generated: 1, holistic: by manipulating of all the differences between a face and the prototypical faces; 2, partial: by manipulating the differences of isolated or combined features between a face and the prototypical face. The stimuli used in Experiment 1 were the holistic caricatures and anticaricatures. In Experiment 2 the stimuli were the partial caricatures and anticaricatures. In both experiments, subjects were asked to rate the similarity between the caricatures and the anticaricatures and a face previously memorized. The results of Experiment 1 provide evidence that the best representation of the face is a photograph without distortion and that, when the face is atypical, the caricatures seem to be as good as photographs without distortion. The results of Experiment 2 point to the importance of the role of distinctive features in face recognition. Comparing the results of Experiments 1 and 2, we can say that the facial recognition process is predominantly holistic but that the manipulation of distinctive facial elements reduces the similarity judgment more than the manipulation of non-distinctive features.
 
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Publishing Date
2012-12-19
 
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