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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.5.2020.tde-02072021-131824
Document
Author
Full name
Mariana de Moura Pereira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2020
Supervisor
Committee
Leyton, Vilma (President)
Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento
Mansur, Antonio de Padua
Sá, Eduardo Costa
Title in Portuguese
A obesidade e outros fatores de risco associados à saúde de motoristas de caminhão de longa jornada que trafegam em rodovias do estado de São Paulo
Keywords in Portuguese
Acidentes de trânsito
Comportamento sedentário
Epidemiologia
Fatores de risco
Obesidade
Toxicologia
Abstract in Portuguese
O transporte rodoviário brasileiro é responsável por 61% de todo o movimento de cargas do país, além de ter grande participação no PIB e gerar muitos postos de trabalho. Entre os trabalhadores, se sobressaem os motoristas de caminhão que percorrem longas distâncias e enfrentam uma série de adversidades, como excesso de carga de trabalho, pouco tempo para descanso, horários irregulares de serviço e curto prazo para entrega de mercadorias. Esses são importantes fatores de risco associados a diversas condições clínicas em que o sobrepeso e a obesidade se destacam. Nos indivíduos obesos, além da maior chance de observarmos a ocorrência de comorbidades como hipertensão arterial, por exemplo, podem ocorrer também associação com outros fatores como a fadiga e aumento do risco de envolvimento em acidentes de trânsito, entre eles, os fatais. Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre dirigir por longas distâncias e alguns fatores de risco para a saúde em especial a obesidade. Metodologia: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com dados de 2.070 motoristas de caminhão que transitaram pelo estado de São Paulo ao longo dos anos, entre 2010 e 2016. Uma entrevista e testes clínicos rápidos foram feitos com os motoristas parados aleatoriamente durante os Comandos de Saúde nas Rodovias, realizados pela Polícia Rodoviária Federal. Variáveis socioeconômicas e ocupacionais e fatores de risco para a saúde foram associadas com o percurso de longas distâncias, que foi definido em >= 300 km. Resultados: Observou-se uma prevalência de condutores que percorrem longa distância ( >= 300km) de 50,8%; IC95%(48,6% - 53,0%) e a obesidade (IMC >= 30kg/m²) neste grupo foi 54,2%. A variável longa distância associou-se com as variáveis consumo de anfetamina (82,9% x 17,1%; p < 0,001), ocorrência de acidentes (63,9% x 36,1%; p < 0,001), sonolência normal (56,8% x 46,2%; < 0,001), >= 4h30 de direção contínua sem parada para descanso (55,0% x 45,0%, p= 0,032), tempo total de viagem >= 8 horas (96,3% x 3,7%; p < 0,001), jornada diária de direção >=8 horas (59,6% x 40,4; p < 0,001), peso (85 kg x 82 kg; p= 0,001), IMC (28,4 kg/m² x 27,4 kg/m²; p < 0,001) e tempo médio de direção por dia (10 horas x 8 horas; p < 0,001). Por outro lado, observou-se que a obesidade neste grupo era mais frequente entre os mais velhos (p=0,04); os casados (p < 0,001); os de menor escolaridade (p=0,003); e com maior tempo de profissão p=(0,001); que apresentaram tempo de cada viagem >= 8horas (p=0,032) e os que mais se envolviam em acidentes (0=0,04) assim como as comorbidades: diabetes mellitus e hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Conclusão: O presente estudo corroborou a existência de associação entre dirigir por longas distâncias e a obesidade. Os motoristas obesos eram homens mais velhos, casados, com menor escolaridade e maior tempo de profissão, além de apresentarem as comorbidades diabetes mellitus e hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Em relação à rotina e a legislação, os obesos também faziam viagens com tempo >= 8 horas e se envolveram em mais acidentes de trânsito
Title in English
Obesity and other risk factors associated with the health of long-haul truck drivers who travel on highways in the state of Sao Paulo
Keywords in English
Accidents traffic
Epidemiology
Obesity
Risk factors
Sedentary behavior
Toxicology
Abstract in English
Brazilian road transport is responsible for 61% of the entire cargo movement in the country, besides having a large share in GDP and generating many jobs. Among workers, it is possible to stand out the truck drivers who travel long distances and face a series of adversities, such as work overload, little time for rest, irregular service hours and little time for delivery goods. These are important risk factors associated with several clinical conditions in which overweight and obesity are frequently. In obese individuals, in addition to the major chance of observing the occurrence of comorbidities, such as arterial hypertension, for example, there may also be an association with other factors, such as fatigue and increased risk of involvement in traffic accidents, including fatal ones. Objective: The study aims to verify the association between driving over long distances and some health risk factors, especially obesity. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out with data from 2,070 truck drivers who traveled through the state of São Paulo over the years, between 2010 and 2016.An interview and rapid clinical tests were done with drivers randomly stopped during the Highway Health Commands, carried out by the Federal Highway Police. Socioeconomic and occupational variables and health risk factors were associated with the variable long distance, which was defined at >= 300 km. Results: There was a 50.8% prevalence of drivers who travel a long distance (>= 300km); 95% CI (48.6% - 53.0%), and obesity (BMI >= 30kg/m²) in this group was 54.2%. The long distance variable was associated with the variables: amphetamine consumption (82.9% x 17.1%; p < 0.001), accidents (63.9% x 36.1%; p < 0.001), normal sleepiness (56.8% x 46.2%; < 0.001), >= 4:30 hours of continuous non-stop driving (55.0% x 45.0%, p= 0.032), total traveling time >= 8 hours (96.3% x 3.7%; p < 0.001), daily driving journey >= 8 hours (59.6% x 40.4; p < 0.001), weight (85 kgs x 82 kgs; p= 0.001), BMI (28.4 kg/m² x 27.4 kg/m²; p < 0.001) and average driving time per day (10 hours x 8 hours; p < 0.001). On the other hand, it was observed that obesity in this group was more frequent among older people (p=0.04), the married ones (p < 0.001), those with less education (p=0.003), those who have more time in the profession (p=(0.001), those who presented time of each trip >= 8 hours (p=0.032) and those who were most often involved in accidents (0=0.04), as well as had comorbidities: diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension. Conclusion: The present study corroborated the existence of an association between driving over long distances and obesity. It also showed that obese drivers were older, married men, with less education and a longer time in the profession, in addition to having comorbidities diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension. Regarding routine and legislation, obese people also traveled for >= 8 hours and were involved in more traffic accidents
 
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Publishing Date
2021-07-02
 
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