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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2007.tde-19022009-102447
Document
Author
Full name
José de Bessa Junior
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2007
Supervisor
Committee
Denes, Francisco Tibor (President)
Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto
Giron, Amilcar Martins
Macedo Junior, Antonio
Mitre, Anuar Ibrahim
Title in Portuguese
Acurária do estudo dos jatos ureterais à ultra-sonografia do Doppler Colorido no diagnóstico das hidronefroses
Keywords in Portuguese
Hidronefrose
Obstrução ureteral
Sensibilidade e especificidade
Técnicas de diagnóstico urológico
Ultra-sonografia Doppler em cores
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução e Objetivo: Hidronefrose e Obstrução são condições associadas, entretanto dilatações da via excretora podem ocorrer na ausência de obstruções clinicamente importantes. Ultra-sonografia convencional e Renograma com Diuréticos são os métodos diagnósticos complementares mais utilizados na avaliação das hidronefroses na infância. Recentes trabalhos têm demonstrado a possibilidade de observarmos os jatos ureterais com o Estudo Ultra-sonográfico com Doppler Colorido e sugerido a sua aplicação no diagnóstico diferencial das hidronefroses. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a aplicabilidade do estudo dos jatos ureterais como método diagnóstico na identificação das hidronefroses obstrutivas e não obstrutivas na população pediátrica. Métodos: Foram estudadas 48 crianças (35 meninos e 13 meninas) com idade que variou de um mês a 14 anos (mediana de 4 anos), que se apresentaram com Hidronefroses Unilaterais, Graus III e IV, e com suspeita de obstrução da junção pieloureteral. Todos os sujeitos foram submetidos ao Estudo dos jatos ureterais e ao Renograma com Diuréticos num período de duas semanas. As unidades hidronefróticas foram consideradas obstruídas quando a Função Renal Diferencial era menor do que 40%, ou em indivíduos mais velhos que apresentavam dor lombar intermitente. Os jatos ureterais de cada meato foram contados por um período de 5 minutos e considerados separadamente. Freqüência Relativa dos Jatos (FRJ) foi definida como o numero de jatos ureterais no lado afetado dividido pela soma dos jatos ureterais observados bilateralmente. Resultados: Vinte e duas (45,8%) unidades hidronefróticas foram consideradas obstruídas.A média da FRJ diferiu significativamente entre as hidronefroses obstrutivas (0,09 ± 0,15) e não obstrutivas (0,41 ± 0,11). (p<0.001). Análise da Curva ROC revelou que FRJ < 0,25 é o melhor valor que distingue as hidronefroses obstrutivas e não obstrutivas e o faz corretamente em 91,2 % dos casos, com uma Sensibilidade de 86,4% (IC95%=78,6-98,2%) e Especificidade de of 96.15% (IC95%=87.8-99%). O Índice de Probabilidade Positivo foi de 22,45 e a Razão de Chances Diagnóstica de 158,3. A área sob a curva ROC foi de 0,91 (IC95%=0,86-0,98) indicando a excelente acurácia do método. Conclusões: FRJ < 25 % mostrou ser um bom indicador de obstrução nas hidronefroses unilaterais da infância. O estudo dos jatos ureterais a Ultrasonografia com Doppler Colorido é método simples, não invasivo e pode ser utilizado na abordagem inicial e no seguimento, na diferenciação das hidronefroses obstrutivas e não obstrutivas na população pediátrica
Title in English
Diagnostic accuracy of color Doppler sonographic study of the ureteric jets in evaluation of hydronephrosis
Keywords in English
Diagnostic techniques urological
Hydronephrosis
Sensitivity and specificity
Ultrasonography Doppler color
Ureteral obstruction
Abstract in English
Introduction and Objective: Hydronephrosis (HN) and obstruction are closely associated, but upper urinary tract dilatation can occur without significant obstruction. Despite some pitfalls, conventional ultrasonography and diuretic renography (DR) are the main modalities in the evaluation of HN in children. Recent reports have demonstrated the usefulness of Color Doppler Ultrasonography (CDUS) as a reliable method to identify the ureteric jets (UJ) in the bladder. The aim of this study was to evaluate CDUS evaluation of the UJ in the bladder as a diagnostic tool to distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive dilatations of the upper tract in pediatric population. Methods: We evaluated 48 patients (35 boys and 13 girls), aged 1 month to 14 years (median = 4 ys.), who presented with unilateral grade III and IV hydronephrosis suspicious of pyeloureteral junction obstruction. All patients underwent DR and evaluation of UJ by transverse CDSG of the bladder within a maximum of 2 weeks. Obstruction was considered in the DR when the hydronephrotic unit showed Differential Renal Function of less than 40%, or when symptomatic intermittent renal colic was present in older children. The number of UJ was counted over a 5 min period and its frequency was calculated for each ureteral orifice. Relative Jet Frequency (RJF) was defined as the UJ frequency of hydronephrotic side divided by total UJ frequency. Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) plots were constructed to determine the best cuttoff for RJF, in order to identify renal units with obstructive hydronephrosis. Results:Twenty-two(45.8%) hydronephrotic units were considered obstructed. The mean RJF differed significantly between obstructive (0.09 ± 0,15) and non-obstructive hydronephrosis (0.41± 0.11)(p<0.001). ROC analysis revealed that RJF< 0.25 was the best threshold and it correctly discriminates obstruction in 91.2% of the childrens with a sensitivity of 86.4% (95%CI=78.6-98.2%) and specificity of 96.15% (95%CI=87,8-99%). The Positive Likelihood Ratio was 22.45 and Diagnostic Odds Ratio was 158.3.The area under the ROC curve was 0.91 (95%CI=0.86-0.98), indicating excellent discrimination power. Conclusions: In this study RJF < 25% was found to be a good indicator of obstruction in children with unilateral hydronephrosis. CDUS evaluation of UJ is an easy and non-invasive method that can be used as an initial diagnostic tool and in follow-up cases, to differentiate obstructed from non-obstructed hydronephrosis in the pediatric population
 
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Publishing Date
2009-03-11
 
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