• JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
  • JoomlaWorks Simple Image Rotator
 
  Bookmark and Share
 
 
Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2006.tde-06012007-192020
Document
Author
Full name
Tulio Augusto Alves Macedo
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Chammas, Maria Cristina (President)
Ajzen, Sergio Aron
Amaro Júnior, Edson
Marui, Suemi
Saito, Osmar de Cassio
Title in Portuguese
Distinção entre os tipos 1 e 2 de tireotoxicose associada à amiodarona por meio de dúplex-Doppler colorido
Keywords in Portuguese
Amiodarona/efeitos adversos
Glândula tireóide
Tireotoxicose
Ultra-sonografia Doppler em cores
Variações dependentes do observador
Abstract in Portuguese
INTRODUÇÃO: A amiodarona pode causar tireotoxicose, principalmente em áreas geográficas onde a ingestão de iodo é insuficiente. Dois tipos distintos de tireotoxicose associada à amiodarona (TAA) podem ser encontrados: A) o tipo 1 - a doença é secundária à sobrecarga de iodo (fenômeno Jod-Basedow), geralmente encontrada em indivíduos com doença tireóidea preexistente, B) o tipo 2 - quando a tireotoxicose deve-se a uma tireoidite destrutiva, com ruptura folicular e liberação do conteúdo folicular. A distinção entre os dois tipos é fundamental para a conduta terapêutica. Este estudo transversal, realizado no Instituto de Radiologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo entre janeiro de 2004 a março de 2006, objetivou: A) Demonstrar a utilidade da densidade de pixéis coloridos (DPC), parâmetro objetivo obtido por meio de programa de computador, na distinção entre os dois tipos de TAA. B) Determinar os melhores critérios objetivos de distinção entre os dois tipos de TAA por meio da ultra-sonografia dúplex-Doppler colorido da tireóide. C) Conhecer o grau de concordância intra-observadores e interobservadores dos padrões subjetivos de vascularização do parênquima tireóideo. MÉTODOS: Foram examinadas 158 glândulas tireóideas por meio de dúplex-Doppler colorido. Após passagem pelos critérios de seleção, 137 indivíduos foram divididos em quatro grupos: Grupo N (n = 84), grupo A (n = 30), grupo I (n = 14) e grupo II (n = 9), compostos por indivíduos normais, eutireóideos em uso de amiodarona, pacientes com tireotoxicose tipos 1 e 2, respectivamente. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos ao estudo dúplex-Doppler colorido da tireóide e testes laboratoriais. Os pacientes em tireotoxicose também realizaram captação de iodo radioativo em 24 horas. RESULTADOS: No grupo I, tanto a densidade de pixéis coloridos (DPC = 17,22 ± 20,81%) quanto as velocidades de pico sistólico nas artérias tireóideas superiores (VSTS = 38,54 ± 18,62 cm/s) e inferiores (VSTI = 35,35 ± 18,08 cm/s) foram maiores do que nos demais grupos (p < 0,05). As análises de concordância do padrão subjetivo de vascularização do parênquima tireóideo mostraram coeficientes kappa ponderado (kw) variando de 0,78 a 0,79 para intra-observadores e de 0,83 a 0,86 para interobservadores. CONCLUSÕES: A) A DPC tem, isoladamente, boa capacidade para distinguir os dois tipos de TAA. B) Os melhores critérios objetivos na distinção entre TAA tipos 1 e 2 são a DPC e as velocidades de pico sistólico nas artérias tireóideas. C) As análises subjetivas dos padrões de vascularização apresentam boa concordância tanto intra-observadores quanto interobservadores.
Title in English
Differentiation between types 1 and 2 of amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis using color duplex sonography
Keywords in English
Amiodarone/adverse effects
Observer variation
Thyroid gland
Thyrotoxicosis
Ultrasonography color Doppler
Abstract in English
INTRODUCTION: Amiodarone can cause thyrotoxicosis, mainly in geographic insufficient iodine intake areas. Two different types of amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis can be found: A) type 1 - it occurs in patients with preexistent thyroid disease, such as goiter or autonomous nodule, and the iodine load associated with amiodarone triggers increased synthesis of thyroid hormones (Jod-Basedow fenomenon), B) type 2 - a destructive thyroiditis is found, characterized by follicular rupture and release of its content. In order to treat appropriately, the differentiation between the two types is crucial. This transversal study, carried through at the Institute of Radiology, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo from January 2004 to March 2006, aimed to: A) demonstrate the utility of the color pixel density (CPD), a semiquantitative parameter gotten by means of computer program, in the differentiation between the two types of AAT, B) verify the best objective criteria of distinction between the two types of AAT through the duplex-Doppler sonography of the thyroid, C) investigate the agreement intra and interobservers of the subjective classification of the thyroid vascularization. METHODS: thyroid glands of 158 subjects were examined by means of duplex-Doppler sonography. After all the selection criteria, 137 individuals were selected into four groups; group N (n = 84), group A (n = 30), group I (n = 14) and II (n = 9), compounded of normal individuals, euthyroids in use of amiodarone, and patients with thyrotoxicosis types 1 and 2, respectively. All the individuals were submitted to perform the duplex-Doppler sonography of the thyroid and laboratorial tests. Also, the patients with thyrotoxicosis had also carried through 24 hour radioactive iodine uptake. RESULTS: In the group I, not only the color pixel density (CPD = 17.22 ± 20.81%) but also the values of systolic peak velocity in the superior and the inferior thyroid arteries (SPVS = 38.54 ± 18.62 cm/s and SPVI = 35.35 ± 18.08 cm/s) were greater than in the other groups (p < 0.05). The subjective agreement analysis of the vascularization patterns showed kappa weighted (kw) coefficients varying between 0.78 and 0.79 for intra-observer, and 0.83 and 0.86 for interobserver analyses. CONCLUSIONS: A) CPD is separately able to distinguish the two types of AAT. B) The best objective criteria in the distinction between AAT types 1 and 2 are the color pixel density CPD and the peak systolic velocity in the thyroid arteries. C) The subjective analyses of the vascularization pattern show good and very good intraobserver and interobserver agreements.
 
WARNING - Viewing this document is conditioned on your acceptance of the following terms of use:
This document is only for private use for research and teaching activities. Reproduction for commercial use is forbidden. This rights cover the whole data about this document as well as its contents. Any uses or copies of this document in whole or in part must include the author's name.
Publishing Date
2007-01-09
 
WARNING: Learn what derived works are clicking here.
All rights of the thesis/dissertation are from the authors
Centro de Informática de São Carlos
Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations of USP. Copyright © 2001-2022. All rights reserved.