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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2004.tde-10042007-141228
Document
Author
Full name
Fábia Maria Oliveira Pinho
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2004
Supervisor
Committee
Burdmann, Emmanuel de Almeida (President)
Abdulkader, Regina Celia Rodrigues de Moraes
Jorge, Miguel Tanús
Lima, Emerson Quintino de
Seguro, Antonio Carlos
Title in Portuguese
Insuficiência renal aguda após envenenamento crotálico: prevalência e fatores de risco - um estudo prospectivo
Keywords in Portuguese
Crotalus
Estudos prospectivos
Fatores de risco
Goiânia (GO)
Insuficiência renal aguda/epidemiologia
Prevalência
Rim/patologia
Venenos de crotalídeos/toxicidade
Abstract in Portuguese
O envenenamento crotálico é responsável por, aproximadamente, 10% dos acidentes causados por serpentes peçonhentas no Brasil. A peçonha crotálica possui ação neurotóxica, miotóxica, nefrotóxica e coagulante. Insuficiência renal aguda (IRA) é a principal complicação nas vítimas que sobrevivem aos efeitos iniciais da peçonha, sendo importante causa de óbito para esses pacientes. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar prospectivamente a prevalência e os fatores de risco relacionados ao desenvolvimento de IRA após envenenamento crotálico. Foram estudadas 100 vítimas de acidente crotálico admitidas no Hospital Doenças Tropicais (HDT) de Goiânia-GO, no período de 07/1998 a 05/2000 e de 08/2001 a 03/2003 (43 meses). Os pacientes foram tratados com soro antiofídico específico (SAC) e estudados desde a admissão até alta hospitalar ou óbito. IRA foi definida como depuração de creatinina endógena (FG) < 60 mL/min/1,73m² nas primeiras 72 horas após o acidente. Os dados foram expressos como mediana (faixa de variação) ou % e analisados pelos testes de Mann-Whitney e Fisher e por regressão logística (RL). Vinte e nove pacientes desenvolveram IRA (29%) e 7 (24% dos pacientes com IRA) realizaram diálise. Ocorreram 3 óbitos, todos no grupo de pacientes com IRA. Comparando-se os pacientes que desenvolveram IRA e os que mantiveram FG = 60 mL/min/1,73m², constatou-se que os primeiros apresentaram menor superfície corpórea [1,55 (0,6-2,3) vs 1,7 (0,6-2,1) m², p= 0,0097], receberam SAC mais tardiamente [12 (2-48) vs 2 (1-14) h, p < 0,0001] e em maior quantidade [190 (90,4-536) vs 158 (75-500) mg/m², p < 0,0001], apresentaram maior prevalência de acidentes graves [26 (90%) vs 38 (54%), p = 0,0005], maior prevalência de ptose palpebral [29 (100%) vs 50 (70%), p = 0,0003], maior prevalência de tempo de coagulação (TC) anormal [24 (83%) vs 36 (51%), p = 0,003], menor diurese na admissão [62,4 (0-182) vs 99,6 (24,6-325) mL/h, p = 0,0004], menor valor de FG mínima [39 (0-54) vs 85 (61-110) mL/min/1,73m², p < 0,0001], maior elevação de creatinoquinase (CK) [50.250 (69-424.120) vs 1.108 (88-133.170) U/L, p < 0,0001] e menor FG de alta [87,5 (22-105) vs 102,1 (91-145) mL/min/1,73m², p < 0,0001]. Apesar de não ter havido significância estatística, pacientes com IRA também eram mais jovens [24 (3-59) vs 32 (3-61) anos, p = 0,09]. Os dois grupos receberam quantidade similar de hidratação. O modelo de RL foi baseado em TC anormal, idade (< 12 anos e > 50 anos), tempo para receber SAC (> 120 min), CK de admissão (> 2.000 U/L) e diurese na admissão (> 90 mL/h). Idade < 12 anos (OR: 5,6, p = 0,026), tempo para receber SAC (OR: 11,1, p = 0,032), CK de admissão (OR: 12,7, p = 0,0009) foram identificados como fatores de risco independentes para o desenvolvimento de IRA, enquanto que diurese na admissão (OR: 0,20, p = 0,014) foi um fator independente associado à proteção. Estes resultados revelaram que IRA por envenenamento crotálico tem alta prevalência (29%). Demora em receber SAC, CK de admissão superior a 2.000 U/L e idade inferior a 12 anos foram fatores de risco independentes para desenvolver IRA. Diurese na admissão acima de 90 mL/h foi um fator protetor.
Title in English
Crotalus snakebite-induced acute renal failure: prevalence and risk factors ? a prospective survey
Keywords in English
Crotalid venoms/toxicity
Crotalus
Goiânia (GO)
Kidney/pathology
Prevalence
Prospective studies
Renal insufficiency acute/epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract in English
Approximately 10% of poisonous snakebites in Brazil are caused by Crotalus snakes. Its venom is neurotoxic, myotoxic, coagulant and causes renal injury. In fact, acute renal failure (ARF) is the major complication in patients surviving the early effects of the venom and a significant cause of death for these patients. The objectives of the present study were to assess prospectively the prevalence and risk factors for Crotalus venom-induced ARF. One hundred Crotalus snakebite patients admitted at Goiania's Tropical Diseases Hospital - GO, Brazil from July 1998 to May 2000 and August 2001 to March 2003 (43 months) were studied. The patients received specific antivenom (AV) and were evaluated from hospital admission until discharge or death. ARF was defined as creatinine clearance (GFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73m2 in the first 72 hours following the snakebite. Data are median (variation range) or % and were analyzed by Mann-Whitney's or Fisher's test and by logistic regression. ARF developed in 29 patients (29%) and 7 (24% of ARF patients) received dialysis. There were 3 deaths, all in the ARF group. When ARF patients were compared to patients that preserved GFR = 60 mL/min/1.73m2, it was found that ARF patients had smaller body surface area [1.55 (0.6-2.3) vs 1.7 (0.6-2.1) m², p = 0.0097], received AV therapy later [12 (2-48) vs 2 (1-14) hours, p < 0.0001], received larger AV amount [190 (90-536) vs 158 (75-500) mg/m², p < 0.0001], had higher % of accidents classified as severe [26(90%) vs 38 (54%), p = 0.0005], more palpebral ptosis [29(100%) vs 50 (70%), p = 0.0003], more cases with abnormal coagulation time (CT) [24 (83%) vs 36 (51%), p = 0.003], lower diuresis at admission [62.4 (0-182) vs 99.6 (24.6-325) mL/h, p = 0.0004], lower GFR nadir [39 (0-54) vs 85 (61-110)mL/min/1.73m², p< 0.0001], higher creatine kinase (CK) [50,250(69-424,120) vs 1,108 (88-133,170) U/L, p < 0.0001] and lower GFR at discharge [87.5 (22-105) vs 102.1 (91-145) mL/min/1.73m², p < 0.0001]. Patients with ARF were younger, but this difference did not reach statistical significance [24 (3-59) vs 32 (3-61) years, p= 0.09]. Both groups received similar amount of hydration. Logistic regression model was based on abnormal CT, age (< 12 years and > 50 years), time to AV administration (>120 min), CK at admission (> 2,000 U/L) and diuresis at admission (> 90mL/h). Age < 12 years (OR: 5.6, p = 0.026), time to AV administration (OR: 11.1, p= 0.032), CK at admission (OR: 12.7, p= 0.0009) were identified as independent risk factors for ARF, while diuresis at admission (OR: 0.20, p = 0.014) was an independent protective factor for renal function. These results showed that Crotalus venom-induced ARF has a high prevalence (29%) and that delay for AV treatment, CK values higher than 2,000 U/L at admission and age lower than 12 years were independent risk factors for the development of ARF. Diuresis at admission above 90 mL/h was a protective factor.
 
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Publishing Date
2007-04-12
 
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