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Master's Dissertation
DOI
10.11606/D.5.2006.tde-31102006-123849
Document
Author
Full name
Alexandra Sayuri Watanabe
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2006
Supervisor
Committee
Fonseca, Luiz Augusto Marcondes (President)
Motta, Antonio Abilio
Sano, Flávio
Title in Portuguese
Revisão sistemática: imunoterapia específica para venenos de hymenoptera
Keywords in Portuguese
Dessensibilização imunológica
Himenópteros
Imunoterapia
Revisão acadêmica [Tipo de publicação]
Abstract in Portuguese
A hipersensibilidade a veneno de Hymenoptera representa importante problema do ponto de vista de saúde da população, uma vez que pacientes alérgicos aos componentes do veneno podem desenvolver reações graves, às vezes fatais. A única profilaxia efetiva em pacientes sensibilizados é a imunoterapia veneno específica. Objetivos: avaliar as evidências científicas a respeito dos efeitos da imunoterapia específica utilizada na profilaxia secundária das reações graves em pacientes sensibilizados a veneno de Hymenoptera, por meio da realização de uma revisão sistemática. Métodos: a estratégia de busca seguiu as recomendações do Grupo de Pele da Colaboração Cochrane. A pesquisa foi realizada nas seguintes bases de dados: MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), EMBASE, LILACS, SciSEARCH e nas referências de artigos mais relevantes. Todos os ensaios clínicos controlados e randomizados envolvendo imunoterapia com veneno de Hymenoptera versus imunoterapia com placebo ou apenas seguimento dos pacientes foram avaliados. Dois revisores de forma independente (ASW e LAMF) avaliaram a elegibilidade e a qualidade metodológica de cada ensaio clínico e extraíram os dados. O risco de reações sistêmicas, conseqüentes a ferroada acidental ou a teste de provocação com o inseto responsável, após a imunoterapia específica, foi avaliado por meio do cálculo do odds ratio e do respectivo intervalo de confiança de 95%. Resultados: 2267 resumos foram identificados. A maioria dos artigos foi excluída pelas seguintes razões: os estudos não eram controlados e randomizados ou não satisfaziam alguns critérios de inclusão. Apenas quatro estudos foram analisados. A idade dos pacientes variou entre dois e 65 anos. Apenas um estudo comparou imunoterapia com veneno de formiga contra placebo (Brown et al.) e três estudos (Hunt et al., Schubert et al. e Valentine et al.) comparam imunoterapia com venenos de abelha e vespa contra placebo ou seguimento de pacientes. Em cada estudo, o odds ratio para reações sistêmicas foi: Hunt et al.- Grupo I (veneno) x III (placebo): 0,10 (0,01
Title in English
Systematic review: specific immunotherapy for Hymenoptera venoms
Keywords in English
Academic review [Publication type]
Hymenoptera
Immunologic desensitization
Immunotherapy
Abstract in English
Background: Hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity is a significant public health problem. For patients who are allergic to components of the venom, reactions can be severe and sometimes fatal. The only effective treatment in the management of those patients is the specific venom immunotherapy. Objective: to assess the effects of the specific venom immunotherapy for Hymenoptera venom hypersensitivity through a systematic review. Methods: the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Skin Group was used for searches of electronic and other databases. These included MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), EMBASE, LILACS, SciSEARCH and the references of relevant articles. All randomized controlled trials involving Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy versus immunotherapy with placebo or only follow-up of the patients were included. Two independent reviewers (ASW and LAMF) assessed the eligibility, and the methodological quality of each trial, and extracted the data. Post immunotherapy risk of systemic reactions after either challenge or accidental stings was calculated through the odds ratio and respective 95 percent confidence interval. Main results: 2,267 abstracts, identified through electronic sources, were assessed. Most articles were excluded for the following reasons: the studies did not satisfy all the inclusion criteria or they were not randomized controlled trials. Four studies were included on this review. The age of the participants varied between two and 65 years. Only one study compared ant venom immunotherapy with placebo (Brown et al.) and three studies (Hunt et al., Schubert et al. and Valentine et al.) compared bees and wasps immunotherapy with placebo or simply patient follow-up. In each study, the odds ratio to a systemic reaction was: Hunt et al.- Group I (venom) x III(placebo): 0,10 (0,01 < OR < 0,68) Schubert et al.: 0,35 (0,05 < OR < 2,56); Valentine et al.: 0,16 (0,02 < OR < 1,21) and Brown et al.: 0,04 (0,01 < OR < 0,28). After the heterogeneity test (p = 0,623), only two studies (Schuberth 1983 and Valentine 1990) were homogeneous enough as to be included in a meta-analysis. The summary odds ratio was 0.29 (IC 95%: 0.10 - 0.87). However, when the severity of the reaction occurring after the sting challenge or accidental sting was taken into account, the benefits were not so relevant because the reactions were, for the most, milder than the original one. Conclusions: The specific-venom immunotherapy must be recommended for adults with systemic reactions and for children with moderate to severe reactions, but there is no need to prescribe it for children who present only skin reactions after insects sting, particularly if the exposure is sporadic.
 
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Publishing Date
2006-11-06
 
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