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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2015.tde-14122015-145516
Document
Author
Full name
Vanessa Martins da Silva
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2015
Supervisor
Committee
Capelozzi, Vera Luiza (President)
Barbas, Carmen Silvia Valente
Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo
Teixeira, Lisete Ribeiro
Zerbini, Maria Claudia Nogueira
Title in Portuguese
Relevância do fibroblasto no remodelamento parenquimatoso pulmonar em modelos experimentais de fibrose induzida por bleomicina e 3-5-di-tert-4-hidroxitolueno
Keywords in Portuguese
Bleomicina
Camundongos
Células epiteliais
Fator de crescimento transformador beta
Fibroblastos
Fibrose pulmonar
Hidroxitolueno butilado
Matriz extracelular
Reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real
Remodelação das vias aéreas
Abstract in Portuguese
A remodelação do epitélio e do mesênquima subjacente tem um papel crucial na patogênese da fibrose pulmonar experimental. A iniciação, gravidade e distribuição de fibrose varia entre os diferentes agentes químicos. Estudos recentes indicaram que o envolvimento epitelial, a expressão de proteínas reguladoras do epitélio, ativação endotelial, estresse do retículo endoplasmático, a ativação de fibroblastos e acumulação de diferentes tipos de colágeno, pode ser específica em lesão causadas por diferentes agentes químicos. Neste estudo, comparou-se a fibrose pulmonar induzida por bleomicina (BLM) e hidroxitolueno butilado (BHT). Envolvimento epitelial, proteínas reguladoras, ativação endotelial e de fibroblastos foram quantitativamente avaliados pela densidade de células alveolares, expressão de telomerase, endotelina-1 (ET-1), fator de crescimento vascular (VEGF), fator de transformação do crescimento beta (TGF-beta) e do fator de crescimento de fibroblastos básico (bFGF). Estresse celular em células epiteliais alveolares do tipo 2 (AEC II) e fibroblastos, eventualmente, responsáveis pela gênese da fibrose pulmonar, foram investigados por microscopia eletrônica. Os colágenos do tipo I (Col I), III (Col III) e V (Col V) foram caracterizados e quantificados por imunofluorescência. A quantidade de colágeno pulmonar e alterações histológicas fibróticas foram significativamente aumentadas nos grupos BLM e BHT em relação aos controles, com diferença significativa entre a resposta fibrótica precoce e tardia. A densidade AEC II, a expressão da telomerase, ET-1, VEGF, TGF-beta e bFGF foram significativamente maiores nos grupos BLM e BHT do que em pulmões dos grupos controles, com diferença significativa entre a fase precoce e tardia da resposta fibrótica. Mitocôndrias anormais e estresse do retículo endoplasmático em AEC II e fibroblastos foram encontrados em ambos os grupos fibróticos. Aumento no acumulo de fibras de Col I, III e V, foram encontradas no interstício pulmonar após instilação de BLM e BHT. A expressão gênica de TGF-beta1 e alfa actina de músculo liso (alfa-SMA) foi significativamente maior em ambos modelos de fibrose pulmonar. Ativação de Smad3 (Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3) associada à expressão de IL-beta1 (Interleucina-1 beta), Lox (lisil-oxidase) e o fator de transcrição Sp1 (Specificity protein 1) foi associada com a ativação do gene alfa-SMA. Em conclusão, os nossos resultados tornam-se relevantes pois demonstram que, independentemente do insulto inicial, há uma convergência no perfil de sinalização, onde fica evidente que a lesão epitélio/endotelial está envolvida num amplo e contínuo processo de reparação com consequente final fibrótico. Um elemento chave no reparo e remodelamento tecidual ou fibrose é a resposta mesenquimal que fornece componentes essenciais de MEC necessários para a infraestrutura da cura e por outro lado para a fibrose progressiva crônica
Title in English
Relevance of fibroblasts in lung parenchymal remodeling in experimental models of bleomycin and 3-5-di-tert-4-hydroxytoluene-induced fibrosis
Keywords in English
Airway remodeling
Bleomycin
Butylated hydroxytoluene
Epithelial cells
Extracellular matrix
Fibroblasts
Lung fibrosis
Mice
Real-time polymerase chain reaction
Transforming growth factor beta
Abstract in English
Epithelial and underlying mesenchyme remodeling have a critical role in the pathogenesis of experimental pulmonary fibrosis. The initiation, distribution and severity of fibrosis varies among different chemical agents. Recent studies have indicated that epithelial involvement, expression of epithelial regulatory proteins, endothelium activation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, fibroblast activation and accumulation of different types of collagen may be specific in various chemical agents of injury. In this study, bleomycin (BLM) and Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice were compared. Epithelial involvement, regulatory proteins, endothelium and fibroblast activation were quantitatively evaluated by alveolar cells density, telomerase, endothelin-1 (ET-1), Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression. Cellular stress in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II) and fibroblasts, eventually responsible by generating lung fibrosis, were investigated by electron microscopy. We characterized and quantified collagen type I (Col I), III (Col III) and V (Col V) by immunofluorescence. Lung collagen content and fibrotic histological changes were significantly increased in BLM and BHT models compared to control with significant difference between early and late fibrotic response. AEC II density, telomerase expression, ET-1, VEGF, TGF-beta and bFGF were significantly higher than control lungs with significant difference between early and late BLM and BHT fibrotic response. Abnormal mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in AEC II and fibroblasts was found in both groups of chemical agents. Increased of Col I, Col III and V fibers accumulation was found in the lung interstitium after BLM and BHT instillation. The expression of TGF-beta1 and alfa smooth muscle actin (alfa-SMA) gene was significantly increased in both model of pulmonary fibrosis. Activated Smad3 (Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3) associated to the IL-beta1 (Interleukin-1 beta), Lox (Lysyl oxidase) and the transcription factor Sp1 (Specificity protein 1) was associated to the activation of alfa-SMA gene. In conclusion, our results become relevant because they demonstrate that, regardless of the initial insult, there is a convergence in the signaling profile, where it is clear that the epithelial/endothelial injury is involved in a broad and continuous repair process with consequent fibrotic end. A key component in tissue repair and remodeling, or fibrosis is the mesenchymal response which provides essential components of extracellular matrix infrastructure needed to cure and secondly for chronic progressive fibrosis
 
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Publishing Date
2015-12-14
 
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