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Master's Dissertation
DOI
Document
Author
Full name
Fernando Portilho Ferro
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2018
Supervisor
Committee
Croci, Alberto Tesconi (President)
Reis, Fernando Baldy dos
Helito, Camilo Partezani
Vicente, José Ricardo Negreiros
Title in Portuguese
Cultura dos tecidos profundos na artroplastia total primária do quadril: valor prognóstico para infecção periprotética
Keywords in Portuguese
Artroplastia
Artroplastia de quadril
Diagnóstico
Fatores de risco
Infecções relacionadas à prótese
Microbiologia
Técnicas de cultura
Abstract in Portuguese
INTRODUÇÃO: A artroplastia total do quadril é um dos procedimentos mais frequentes na ortopedia. O risco de infecção varia de 1 a 5%, e acarreta grande impacto negativo na qualidade de vida do paciente, além de envolver custos expressivos. O diagnóstico e tratamento precoce da infecção permite um tratamento mais rápido e efetivo, o que pode melhorar o resultado clínico final. Sabe-se que germes patogênicos podem contaminar o campo cirúrgico durante a cirurgia, apesar de rigorosa técnica asséptica, mas existe debate na literatura sobre a existência de benefício em identificar tais germes já na artroplastia primária em pacientes não infectados. Embora a coleta de múltiplas amostras para cultura seja prática bem estabelecida em procedimentos de revisão, permanece controversa a coleta de culturas em artroplastias primárias. Diversas bactérias podem contaminar o campo operatório durante a cirurgia, mas somente seriam capazes de causar infecção aquelas que contaminarem os planos anatômicos mais profundos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se há valor prognóstico na realização de cultura de amostras profundas de tecido ósseo e de partes moles durante a realização da artroplastia total primária do quadril, buscando correlação entre a positividade das culturas e de infecção periprotética subsequente. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, utilizando informações obtidas do prontuário médico e do sistema informatizado de consulta de exames laboratoriais. Foram colhidas amostras profundas (osso femoral, acetabular e cápsula) de 426 casos consecutivos de artroplastia total primária eletiva do quadril. Os pacientes foram seguidos por no mínimo três anos e foram identificados os pacientes que evoluíram com infecção. O perfil microbiológico das culturas nas cirurgias primárias foi comparado com aquele dos pacientes infectados. Adicionalmente, os prontuários foram revisados para a identificação de fatores de risco associados a maior risco de infecção periprotética. RESULTADOS: 54 cirurgias (12,6%) apresentaram culturas positivas. 16 casos (3,8%) evoluíram com infecção, dos quais cinco haviam apresentado cultura positiva na cirurgia primária. Os germes isolados nos pacientes infectados não coincidiram com os identificados na cirurgia índice. A taxa de infecção foi de 9,3% nos pacientes com cultura positiva e 3% naqueles com cultura negativa (p < 0,05), com um "odds ratio" de 3,34 (IC95% 1,09-10,24). Pacientes submetidos a alguma cirurgia prévia no quadril apresentaram taxa de infecção de 8,5%, sendo que tal percentual foi de 2,9% nos pacientes sem cirurgia prévia (p < 0,05). O único fator de risco associado a uma maior positividade de culturas foi o tabagismo (10,5% vs 23,6%, p < 0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Dentre os pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total primária do quadril, aqueles com cultura positiva apresentaram maior risco de desenvolvimento de infecção periprotética (IPP). Pacientes submetidos a algum procedimento cirúrgico prévio no mesmo quadril apresentaram maior risco de IPP
Title in English
Multiple deep tissue cultures in primary total hip arthroplasty: prognostic value for periprosthetic infection
Keywords in English
Arthroplasty
Arthroplasty replacement hip
Culture techniques
Diagnosis
Microbiology
Prosthesis-related infections
Risk factors
Abstract in English
INTRODUCTION: The total hip arthroplasty is one of the most frequent procedures in orthopedics. The risk of infection usually varies from 1% to 5% and has a great negative impact on patients' quality of life, while also involving significant costs. The diagnosis and early treatment of infection allows a faster and more effective treatment, which can improve the final clinical result. It is known that pathogenic germs can contaminate the surgical theater, despite strict aseptic technique, but there is debate in the literature regarding the benefit of identifying such germs during the primary arthroplasty in non-infected patients. Although the obtainment of multiple samples for culture is a well-established practice in revision procedures, the obtainment of cultures in primary arthroplasties remains controversial. Several bacteria can contaminate the operative field during surgery, but only those that contaminate the deeper anatomical layers should be capable of causing infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is prognostic value in the culture of deep samples of bone and soft tissues during primary total hip arthroplasty, seeking a correlation between the positivity of the cultures and subsequent periprosthetic infection. METHODS: This was a retrospective study, using information obtained from medical records and a computerized system for consultation of laboratory tests. Deep samples (femoral bone, acetabular bone and capsule) were collected from 426 consecutive cases of elective primary total hip arthroplasty. Patients were followed up for at least three years and patients who had developed infection were identified. The microbiological profile of cultures in the primary surgeries was compared to that of the infected patients. In addition, the medical records were reviewed for the identification of risk factors associated with a higher risk of periprosthetic infection. RESULTS: 54 surgeries (12.6%) presented positive cultures. 16 cases (3.8%) developed infection, of which five had presented a positive culture in the primary surgery. Isolated germs in infected patients did not coincide with those identified in the index surgery. The infection rate was 9.3% in patients with positive culture and 3% in those with negative culture (p < 0.05), with an odds ratio of 3.34 (95% CI 1.09-10.24). Patients who had a previous hip surgery had an infection rate of 8.5%, and this percentage was 2.9% in patients with no previous surgery (p < 0.05). The only risk factor associated with a higher risk of culture positivity was smoking (10.5% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty, those with a positive culture had a higher risk of developing periprosthetic infection (PPI). Patients who had undergone previous surgical procedures in the same hip also presented a higher risk of PPI
 
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Publishing Date
2019-06-04
 
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