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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2009.tde-29042009-111724
Document
Author
Full name
Clerio Francisco de Azevedo Filho
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2009
Supervisor
Committee
Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo (President)
Barbosa, Marcia de Melo
Grinberg, Max
Monte, Guilherme Urpia
Szarf, Gilberto
Title in Portuguese
Avaliação da fibrose miocárdica pela ressonância magnética cardíaca na doença valvar aórtica grave: validação de um algoritmo de quantificação e comparação com a histopatologia
Keywords in Portuguese
Cirurgia cardíaca
Doença valvar aórtica
Fibrose miocárdica
Função ventricular esquerda
Histopatologia
Imagem por ressonância magnética
Prognóstico
Abstract in Portuguese
Introdução: A doença valvar aórtica grave é caracterizada por um processo de acúmulo progressivo de fibrose intersticial no tecido miocárdico. No contexto da sobrecarga mecânica crônica do VE característica dessa condição, a quantidade de fibrose intersticial pode exercer um papel importante na indesejável transição entre hipertrofia ventricular esquerda compensada e insuficiência cardíaca congestiva clinicamente manifesta. Entretanto, a avaliação quantitativa da fibrose intersticial só tem sido possível através da análise histopatológica de fragmentos miocárdicos obtidos por biopsia endomiocárdica. Objetivos: Avaliar se a ressonância magnética (RM) cardíaca com técnica do realce tardio permite a quantificação não-invasiva da fibrose miocárdica quando comparada à análise histopatológica em pacientes portadores de doença valvar aórtica grave. Adicionalmente, avaliou-se a relação entre a quantidade de fibrose miocárdica e parâmetros prognósticos importantes, tais como mortalidade e recuperação funcional do VE após cirurgia de troca valvar aórtica. Métodos: Entre Maio de 2001 e Dezembro de 2003 foram incluídos 54 pacientes com indicação de cirurgia de troca valvar aórtica. Antes da cirurgia, todos os pacientes foram submetidos a RM cardíaca com técnicas de cine-RM e realce tardio miocárdico. A quantificação da fibrose miocárdica pela RM baseou-se na análise das imagens de realce tardio utilizando um novo algoritmo semi-automático. As regiões de fibrose miocárdica foram definidas como o somatório de todos os pixels do tecido miocárdico com intensidade de sinal acima de um limiar definido como: intensidade de sinal média do miocárdio + 2 desvios padrão da intensidade de sinal média da área remota + 2 desvios padrão da intensidade de sinal média do ar. Amostras de tecido miocárdico obtidas por miectomia durante o ato cirúrgico foram submetidas a coloração pelo picrosírius para quantificação da fibrose intersticial. Os pacientes foram submetidos a um segundo exame de RM cardíaca 6 meses após a cirurgia para se avaliar as alterações evolutivas dos parâmetros funcionais do VE e todos foram acompanhados por pelo menos 24 meses quanto à sobrevida após a cirurgia de troca valvar aórtica. Resultados: O percentual de fibrose miocárdica pela RM apresentou boa correlação com os valores obtidos pela histopatologia (r=0,69; y=3,10x+13,0; p<0,0001). A quantidade de fibrose miocárdica, tanto pela histopatologia como pela RM, apresentou correlação inversa significativa com a FE ventricular esquerda basal (r=-0,63 e -0,67 respectivamente; p<0,0001). Adicionalmente, o percentual de fibrose miocárdica apresentou correlação inversa significativa com o grau de recuperação funcional do VE após a cirurgia de troca valvar (r=- 0,42, p=0,04 para a histopatologia; r=-0,47, p=0,02 para a RM). Mais importante, a análise de Kaplan-Meier revelou que o acúmulo de fibrose miocárdica associou-se a menor sobrevida 52±17 meses após a cirurgia de troca valvar (teste log-rank: 2=6,32; p=0,01 para histopatologia; 2=5,85; p=0,02 para RM). Conclusões: A RM cardíaca permite quantificar as regiões de fibrose miocárdica com boa acurácia quando comparada à análise histopatológica nos pacientes portadores de doença valvar aórtica grave. A magnitude de acúmulo de fibrose miocárdica está associada a pior recuperação funcional do VE e a menor sobrevida após a cirurgia de troca valvar aórtica.
Title in English
Assessment of myocardial fibrosis by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in severe aortic valve disease: validation of a quantitative algorithm and comparison with histopathology
Keywords in English
Aortic valve disease
Cardiac surgery
Histopathology
Left ventricular function
Magnetic resonance imaging
Myocardial fibrosis
Prognosis
Abstract in English
Introduction: Severe aortic valve disease is characterized by a process of progressive accumulation of interstitial fibrosis in the myocardial tissue. It has been shown that the amount of interstitial myocardial fibrosis can play an important role in the transition from well-compensated hypertrophy to overt heart failure in the setting of chronic left ventricular mechanical overload typical of this condition. However, assessment of interstitial myocardial fibrosis has only been possible through histological analyses of myocardial fragments obtained from endomyocardial biopsies, which is a complex and invasive procedure and, therefore, with limited clinical applicability. Objectives: Determine whether delayedenhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for the non-invasive quantification of myocardial fibrosis when compared against histopathological analyses in patients with severe aortic valve disease. Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between the amount of myocardial fibrosis and important prognostic parameters, such as all-cause mortality and LV functional recovery after aortic valve replacement. Methods: Fifty-four patients scheduled to undergo aortic valve replacement surgery were enrolled between May 2001 and December 2003. Before surgery, all patients underwent cine and delayedenhancement MRI in a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Quantification of myocardial fibrosis by cardiac MRI was based on the assessment of the delayed-enhancement dataset using a novel semiautomatic algorithm. The regions of myocardial fibrosis were defined as the sum of pixels with signal intensity above a threshold value defined as: mean signal intensity of the myocardium + 2 standard deviations of mean signal intensity of a remote area + 2 standard deviations of mean signal intensity of air. During open-heart surgery, myectomy samples were acquired from the LV septum and later stained with picrosirius for interstitial myocardial fibrosis quantification. A second cardiac MRI study was performed 6 months after surgery to assess long-term changes in LV functional parameters, and all patients were followed for at least 24 months to evaluate survival after aortic valve replacement. Results: There was a good correlation between the values of myocardial fibrosis measured by MRI and those obtained by histopathological analyses (r=0.69; y=3.10x+13.0; p<0.0001). The amount of myocardial fibrosis, either by MRI or by histopathology, exhibited a significant inverse correlation with LV ejection fraction before surgery (r=-0.63 e -0.67 respectively; p<0.0001). Additionally, the amount of myocardial fibrosis displayed a significant inverse correlation with the degree of LV functional recovery after aortic valve replacement (r=-0.42, p=0.04 for histopathology; r=-0.47, p=0.02 for MRI). Most importantly, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses revealed that higher degrees of myocardial fibrosis accumulation were associated with worse survival 52±17 months after aortic valve replacement surgery (log-rank test: 2=6.32; p=0.01 for histopathology; 2=5.85; p=0.02 for MRI). Conclusions: Cardiac MRI allows for the non-invasive quantification of myocardial fibrosis with good accuracy when compared with histopathological analyses in patients with severe aortic valve disease. The degree of myocardial fibrosis accumulation is associated with impaired LV functional recovery and worse survival after aortic valve replacement surgery.
 
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Publishing Date
2009-05-14
 
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