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Thèse de Doctorat
DOI
10.11606/T.5.2004.tde-13102014-103252
Document
Auteur
Nom complet
Lara Vilela de Souza
Adresse Mail
Unité de l'USP
Domain de Connaissance
Date de Soutenance
Editeur
São Paulo, 2004
Directeur
Jury
Castro, Claudio Campi de (Président)
Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo
Rocha, Antonio José da
Uezumi, Kiyomi Kato
Wolosker, Angela Maria Borri
Titre en portugais
Avaliação de aterosclerose carotídea através de ultra-sonografia e ressonância magnética
Mots-clés en portugais
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico
Doença das coronárias
Fatores de risco
Imagem por ressonância magnética
Resumé en portugais
A aterosclerose é uma doença progressiva crônica. Embora segmentar, é generalizada e acomete as artérias carótidas, propiciando maior risco de acidente vascular cerebral. Utilizamos dois métodos diagnósticos, nesta avaliação, que foram a ultra-sonografia modo B em escala de cinza associada também a fluxo Doppler colorido, e a ressonância magnética (RM) com seqüências ponderadas em T1 e T2, ambas pelas técnicas "black-blood" (BB) e "fat sat black-blood" (FSBB), e angiografia por ressonância magnética "time-of-flight'' tridimensional (3D TOF), com e sem a administração do contraste paramagnético. Objetivou-se a identificação de ateromas carotídeos em pacientes coronariopatas, comprovados por cateterismo cardíaco com indicação de terapia cirúrgica. Realizou-se a estimativa do grau de estenose das artérias carótidas internas, através de ultra-sonografia com fluxo Doppler colorido (UDC) e angiografia por ressonância magnética (ARM), comparando-se os métodos. Também foram feitas comparações entre a ecogenicidade das placas visualizadas através de ultra-sonografia (USG), com a intensidade de sinal adquirida pelos exames de ressonância magnética (RM). Foi realizada avaliação de qualidade de imagens e confiabilidade inter-observadores, nos exames de ressonância magnética. Houve alta incidência de aterosclerose carotídea, nos pacientes em estudo. Do total de 100 segmentos carotídeos analisados por ultra-sonografia, com fluxo Doppler colorido para estimativa do grau de estenose, 81% apresentaram algum tipo de estenose, sendo o grau leve (grau II) predominante, evidenciado em 59% dos casos. Avaliamos a associação entre o grau de estenose visualizado através de UDC e ARM, com e sem contraste, e houve reprodutibilidade marginal entre os métodos. Observaram-se alterações de intensidade de sinal das paredes vasculares nos exames de RM, nas seqüências ponderadas em T1-BB, T1-FSBB, T2-BB e T2-FSBB, entre 71% e 72%. O aumento da intensidade de sinal foi predominante. Nas 72 placas com ecogenicidade tipo 4, houve aumento da intensidade de sinal em 13,9% em 3D TOF, 59,7% em T1-BB, 65,3% em T1-FSBB, 62,5% em T2-BB e 66,7% em T2-FSBB. Nas placas com ecogenicidade tipo 2, houve aumento da intensidade de sinal em 42,9% em 3D TOF, 71,4% em T1-BB e T1-FSBB, 85,7% em T2-BB e 71,4% em T2-FSBB. Nas placas com ecogenicidade tipo 1, houve aumento da intensidade de sinal em 50,0%, nas seqüências ponderadas em 3D TOF, T1 e T2. Em 19 segmentos carotídeos, a USG foi considerada normal. Quando os mesmos segmentos foram avaliados através de RM, observou-se aumento da intensidade de sinal em 21,1% em 3D TOF, 47,4% em T1-BB, 57,9% em T1-FSBB, 52,6% em T2-BB e T2-FSBB. Não houve correlação entre os tipos de ecogenicidade das placas visualizadas através de USG, com as alterações de intensidade de sinal pela RM. A avaliação da qualidade de imagens dos exames de RM, com cortes no plano axial nas seqüências ponderadas em T1 e T2 (BB e FSBB), foi considerada ótima e, em 3D TOF, muito boa. A qualidade de imagem dos exames de ARM, com e sem contraste, foi considerada excelente. Notou-se ótima reprodutibilidade inter-observadores, com valores de índice Kappa acima de 0,71
Titre en anglais
Assessment of carotid artery atherosclerosis through ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging
Mots-clés en anglais
Atherosclerosis/diagnosis
Coronary disease
Magnetic resonance imaging
Risk factors
Resumé en anglais
Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive disease. Although being segmental, atherosclerosis is systemic and attacks carotid arteries, propitiating a greater risk of cerebral vascular accident. In this assessment, we have applied two diagnostic imaging methods such as gray-scale B-mode ultrasound (US) in association with color flow Doppler (CFD-US) and T1 and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, using black-blood (T1-BB and T2-BB) and black-blood with fat saturation (T1-FSBB and T2-FSBB) techniques, and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with and without paramagnetic contrast agent (three-dimensional time-of-flight, 3D TOF). Our objective was the identification of carotid atheromas in patients with coronary artery disease - as confirmed by cardiac catheterism, and referred to cardiac surgery. The degree of stenosis of the internal carotid arteries was estimated by CFD-US and by MRA, and the results from both methods were compared. The echogenicity of carotid plaques as seen by US and the signal intensity of MR images were also compared. Evaluation of image quality and inter-rater reliability of evaluation of MR images were also performed. There was a high incidence of carotid atherosclerosis in the patient population under study. From a total of one hundred (100) carotid artery segments analyzed by CFD-US for stenosis degree estimation, 81% showed some degree of stenosis, with a predominance of mild grade (grade II), which was detected in 59.0% of the cases. We have evaluated the association between the degree of stenosis visualized by CFD-US and by MRA with and without contrast agent and there was a marginal reproducibility between these methods. It was observed changes in artery wall signal intensity of 71% to 72%, in the T1-BB, T1-FSBB, T2-BB and T2-FSBB sequences of the MRI examinations. Increases in signal intensity were predominant. Among 72 plaques with echogenicity type 4, the signal intensity has increased 13.9% in 3D TOF, 59.7% inT1-BB, 65.3% in T1-FSBB, 62.5% in T2-BB and 66.7% in T2-FSBB. Among plaques with echogenicity type 2, the signal intensity has increased 42.9% in 3D TOF, 71.4% in T1-BB and T1-FSBB, 85.7% in T2-BB and 71.4% in T2-FSBB. Plaques with echogenicity type 1, showed signal intensity increase of 50.0% in the 3D TOF, T1 and T2 weighted MRI sequences. In 19 carotid artery segments, CFD-US was considered normal. When the same segments were evaluated by MRI, it was noted an increase of the image signal intensity in 21.1% in 3D TOF, 47.4% in T1-BB, 57.9% in T1-FSBB, 52.6% in T2-BB and T2-FSBB. There was no correlation between the types of plaque echogenicities seen by the CFD-US with the changes of signal intensity seen by MRI. The image quality and interobserver reliability of MR examinations were evaluated. The image quality of the T1 and T2-weighted axial MR images was considered excellent and for 3D TOF images, the quality was considered very good. The quality of the MRA images with and without paramagnetic contrast agent was considered excellent. It was noted an excellent interobserver reproducibility with values of Kappa index greater than 0.71
 
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Date de Publication
2014-10-13
 
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