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Master's Dissertation
DOI
https://doi.org/10.11606/D.47.2020.tde-14082020-141426
Document
Author
Full name
Fernanda Tiemi Nakashima Ferreira
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 2020
Supervisor
Committee
Helene, André Frazão (President)
Ribeiro, Pedro Leite
Toledo, Marcelo Arruda Fiuza de
Title in Portuguese
Forrageamento e aprendizado espaço-temporal em formigas cortadeiras (Acromyrmex sp.) na presença de sacarose
Keywords in Portuguese
Comportamento animal
Formigas
Forrageamento
Abstract in Portuguese
As formigas podem ajustar suas atividades de acordo com o estímulo que recebem do ambiente. Se as unidades da colônia podem se adaptar através da auto-organização, o próprio sistema também pode se adaptar e adquirir novas características. As formigas são capazes de se orientar espacialmente e sincronizar seu ritmo endógeno com o horário de algum alimento. Assim, quando a recompensa estiver presente estarão mais preparadas para formar a trilha de forrageamento para a sua coleta. O objetivo do trabalho é verificar se as colônias de formigas Acromyrmex sp. respondem à presença da sacarose através do aprendizado espaço-temporal. Para este estudo, duas trilhas em direções opostas davam acesso ao ninho. Somente uma das trilhas levava à sacarose, que foi colocada por 1h durante 21 dias consecutivos no mesmo local e horário. No 22° dia não foi fornecido o açúcar. Para cada trilha foi instalada uma câmera para gravar o fluxo de indivíduos em 4 horários diferentes: controle 1 (pré-sacarose 10 a 11h), antecipação (11h30 a 12h), sacarose (12 a 13h) e controle 2 (pós-sacarose 14 a 15h). No 21° dia as formigas foram marcadas e no dia seguinte, observadas. Os dados analisados mostraram que: (1) as formigas responderam positivamente ao estímulo apresentado através da formação da trilha de forrageamento para coletar a sacarose; (2) o efeito provocado pela sacarose ainda foi possível de ser observado no horário controle 2, como o açúcar já tinha sido retirado o fluxo não foi intenso, mas foi significativamente maior do que na trilha oposta; (3) as colônias tiveram aprendizado espacial na 3° semana de experimento, pois o fluxo de indivíduos foi significativamente maior na trilha com acesso à sacarose; (4) na 2° semana, as colônias estavam no local correto com antecedência de 10 minutos e na 3° semana, com 20 minutos, indicando aprendizado espaço-temporal progressivo; (5) no 22° dia as formigas se apresentaram com 10 minutos de antecedência e permaneceram no local correto até o horário controle 2; (6) as formigas marcadas indicaram ter preferência em forragear em determinado local, mesmo que ele não ofereça algum tipo de recompensa. As colônias foram capazes de aprender onde e quando procurar por alimento. Devido ao ajuste das formigas aos estímulos do ambiente e às características de auto-organização da colônia foi possível a preparação para a coleta da sacarose e o sucesso no forrageamento para a colônia como um todo
Title in English
Not informed by the author
Keywords in English
Animal behavior
Ants
Foraging
Abstract in English
Ants can adjust their activities according to the stimulus they receive from the environment. If the colony´s units can adapt through self-organization, the system itself can also adapt and acquire new characteristics. Ants are able to orient themselves spatially and synchronize their endogenous rhythm with the time of the food. Thus, when the reward is present, they will be better prepared to form the foraging trail for their collection. The objective of the work is to verify if the colonies of ants Acromyrmex sp. respond to the presence of sucrose through time-place learning. For this study, two trails in opposite directions gave access to the nest. Only one of the trails led to sucrose, which was placed for 1h for 21 consecutive days at the same place (2 possible) and time (4 possible). On the 22nd day sugar was not supplied. A camera was installed for each track to record the flow of individuals at 4 different times: control 1 (pre-sucrose 10-11h), anticipation (11h30 12h), sucrose (12-13h) and control 2 (post-sucrose 14-15h). On the 21st day the ants were marked and the next day, observed. The analyzed data showed that: (1) the ants responded positively to the stimulus presented by forming the foraging trail to collect sucrose; (2) the effect caused by sucrose was still possible to be observed at control time 2, as the sugar had already been removed, the flow was not intense, but it was significantly greater than on the opposite trail; (3) the colonies had spatial learning in the 3rd week of the experiment, as the flow of individuals was significantly greater on the trail with access to sucrose; (4) in the 2nd week, the colonies were in the correct place 10 minutes in advance and in the 3rd week, with 20 minutes, indicating progressive time-place learning; (5) on the 22nd day, the ants presented themselves 10 minutes in advance and remained in the correct place until control time 2; (6) the marked ants indicated that they prefer to forage in a certain location, even if it does not offer any type of reward. The colonies were able to learn where and when to look for food. Due to the adjustment of the ants to the stimuli of the environment and the characteristics of self-organization of the colony, it was possible to prepare for the collection of sucrose and the success in foraging for the colony as a whole.
 
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Publishing Date
2020-08-17
 
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