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Doctoral Thesis
DOI
10.11606/T.46.1997.tde-05092014-165559
Document
Author
Full name
Angélica Maria Lucchese
E-mail
Institute/School/College
Knowledge Area
Date of Defense
Published
São Paulo, 1997
Supervisor
Committee
Marzorati, Liliana (President)
Araujo, Angela Regina
Rodrigues, Jose Augusto Rosario
Roque, Nidia Franca
Zerbini, Sandra Alvarez Guerrero
Title in Portuguese
Síntese de sais de piridínio novos catalisadores de transferência de fase
Keywords in Portuguese
Catálise
Compostos de nitrogênio
Química orgânica
Sais de piridínio
Síntese assimétrica
Síntese orgânica (química)
Abstract in Portuguese
Neste trabalho foi preparada uma série de sais de piridínio, com subsequente investigação da sua atividade catalítica e indução assimétrica em reações de adição de Michael e alquilações de metilenas ativas. Os sais de piridínio foram preparados pela reação de tetrafluorborato de 2,4,6-trifenilpirílio e 2,4,6-trimetilpirílio com aminas, aminoálcoois e/ou aminoácidos. As reações em que se efetuou o teste catalítico destes sais foram: a) adição de cianoacetato de etila, N-acetamidomalonato de dietila e nitrometano à chalcona e de tiofenol à 2-ciclohexenona; b) alquilação de cianoacetato de etila e de fenilcianoacetato de etila com cloreto de benzila. Os sais de piridínio testados atuaram como catalisadores nas alquilações de metilenas ativas e nas adições de Michael, com exceção da reação de N-acetamidomalonato de dietila com chalcona. No que tange à eficiência como indutores de assimetria, foram feitas reações comparativas entre os sais de piridínio quirais, o brometo de N-benzil-N-metilefedrínio ou o cloreto de N-benzilquinínio, sendo que os catalisadores por nós sintetizados se mostraram menos eficientes. A conformação preferencial de três sais de piridínio, em que a cadeia alquílica ligada ao átomo de nitrogênio possue um substituinte aromático, foi determinada através de experimentos de NOE-diff. Para dois destes sais há evidências da formação de complexos de transferência de carga intramolecular. A atividade catalítica e a indução assimétrica destes três catalisadores foi interpretada com base no estudo conformacional acima mencionado.
Title in English
Synthesis of pyridinium salts - new catalysts phase transfer
Keywords in English
Asymmetric synthesis
Catalysis
Nitrogen compounds
Organic chemistry
Organic synthesis (Chemistry)
Pyridinium salts
Abstract in English
In the presente work, a series of pyridinium salts was prepared and their catalytic activity evaluated, as well as their ability to induce asymmetry in Michael additions and alkylation of organic carbon acids. Such pyridinium salts were prepared by reacting 2,4,6-triphenyl or 2,4,6-trimethylpyrilium tetrafluoroborates with amines, α-aminoalcohols or α-aminoacids. The catalytic activity of the prepared salts was evaluated in the folIowing PTC reactions: a) Michael addition of ethylcyanoacetate, diethyl N-acetamidomalonate or nitromethane to chalcone and of thiophenol to 2-cyclohexenone; b) alkylation of ethylcyanoacetate or ethyl phenylcyanoacetate, using benzyl chloride as eletrophile. In alI cases, except 1,4-addition of diethyl N-acetamidomalonate to chalcone, the prepared pyridinium salts displayed catalytic activity although with inferior asymmetric induction efficiency as compared to the classicalIy used efedrinium and quininium salts. The preferencial conformation of three pyridinium salts bearing aromatic rings in the nitrogen substituent aliphatic chain was determined by NOE diff experiments. In two cases some evidences for charge transfer was provided by uv measurements. The catalytic result and the asymmetric induction were interpreted on the basis of the well accepted substrate/catalyst interaction model and conformational analysis data.
 
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Publishing Date
2014-09-05
 
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